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129 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
How are two or more quantitative variables related is what type research
correlational research
Behavior related study, a type of validity
convergent validity
I am an experiment and I have the most____
Did I measure what I intended to measure?
Construct validity
I am influenced by reliability and how well my variables were operationally defined
construct validity
My test correlates well with another test known to be valid?
concurrent validity
I am the correlation coefficient squared
coefficient of determination
I am the overlap or variance accounted for by a 2nd variable
coefficient of determination
Why are two or more naturally occurring groups different?
causal comparative
Also known as ex post facto study
causal comparative
Influence of one treatment still remains when second treatment is given
carryover effects
I have no power
I am also a type 2 error
Research done in a lab with no application in mind
basic research
I am done to develop or test a theory
basic research
How are two or more variables are related: correlational and comparative
associational or relational
American Psychological Association
I am a measure of equivalence
alternate or parallel forms reliability
I am the level at which something is statistically significant
I am the probability of making a type 1 error
Analysis of variance
statistical test used for 3 or more tests
I have an immediate application, real world application
applied research
I am used in single subject research
baseline designs
In single subject research, there are two type of designs I can be used in
within or within component of mixed subject design
In research, this means to enhance the welfare of your participants
Do as much good
I only measure my participants one time
Between subjects design
I don't fit neatly into any category but I employ many data collection techniques for descriptive data
Case study
I use intact groups in my sampling
Cluster random sampling
Do two or more groups known to differ also differ with respect to a 2nd variable
Comparative Research
I vary systematically and am unwanted
confounding variable
I am a representative sample of material in a test
Content validity
If a test only contains one question, it lacks this?
content validity
I tell the strength and direction of relationship between 2 variables
correlation coefficient
How much variance in one variable that can be accounted for by knowing a 2nd variable
correlation coefficient
Done to deal with order effects
measure of comparison
criterion validity
Done after study to participants
Give clues to participants
demand characteristics
measures what actually exists with one single variable
descriptive research
Nobody knows anything about the study
double blind
Directly verifiable
another name for causal comparative
ex post facto
Find something because you expected to find it
experimenter bias
Treat one group different than another to get results you want
Pygmalion effect or experimenter bias
How well your findings apply elsewhere
external validity
Look of the test
face validity
Experimental study involving 2 or more independent variables
factorial design
Goals of research
define, explain, predict, change or control
Specific predictions about the outcome of the study
Prevent reactivity with this
cover story
A developmental study equal to between subjects, measure once
cross sectional study
theory to hypothesis, general to specific
deductive reasoning
the variable that is measured
dependent variable
Report what exists with respect to one variable
descriptive research
behavior related study where you don't want a correlation
discriminant validity
Learn about the culture of an intact group, detailed and ongoing
Does one variable affect or cause a 2nd variable?
Can two groups differ because of IV
Manipulation before measurement
Affected by sampling technique and experimental realism
external validity
I vary randomly and don't affect IV
extraneous variable
Be true to study, obligations
Reactivity-another name
Hawthorne effect
Cannot be directly studied, creativity, intelligence
hypothetical construct
Varies systematically and you want it in an experiment
Begins with real world observations
inductive reasoning
specific to general
inductive reasoning
Type reasoning used with descriptive study
inductive reasoning
Participants sign before experiment
informed consent
Measure of consistency
Only requires one test administration
split-half (inter-item)
good control
internal validity
Institutional Review Board
Give credit where credit is due
Developmental research done over time
longitudinal study
Find out about one IV by itself
main effects
Allow us to see if 2 or more variables when used together will perform
interaction effect
See how one variable performs alone
main effect
Combo of within and between
mixed subject design
Combo of 2 or more samplings
multi-stage random sample
Subjects natural environment observed
naturalistic observation
practice and fatigue are examples of this
order effects
Keep it simple
ability to detect an effect if one exists
poorest control
pre-experimental design
Predicts future performance
predictive validity
random sample has two names
random selection and probability sample
Self fulfilling prophecy
pygmalion effect
Rosenthal effect
self fulfilling prophecy
Inductive research
qualitative research
Research based on some quality that is not counted
qualitative research
Deductive research
quantitative research
Research that is counted or measured
quantitative research
Use of intact groups to do research
quasi experiment
The most popular way to do research
Looks like the population it was taken from
random sampling
Participants perform in a certain way because they know they are being watched
Used to predict an unknown from a known
Produce same results, consistent
Another name for within subjects design
repeated measures design
Problem with self-report studies
response bias
I use anonymity and confidentiality to avoid this
response bias
Self fulfilling prophecy
Rosenthal Effect
Ensure a question is answered correctly how?
scientific method
Express factorial design with numbers
shorthand notation
Everyone has an equal chance of being selected
Simple random sample
I lack external validity because I serve as my own control
single subject design
Another name for single subject
baseline or intra-subject
Proportional random sample
stratified random sample
Must know how population is comprised
Stratified Random sampling
Cannot be assigned such as age, race, gender
subject variable
Every nth person is selected.
Systematic Random sample
Two administrations of the same test
Test re-test
A measure of stability
Test retest
General statement used to relate two variables
This has the most control
True experiment
Statistical test used for 2 variables
Conclude there is a relationship when there is NOT
type one error
Reject the null and you shouldn't have
type 1 error
This is equal to alpha
type one error
Made a bad decision
type one error
Claim there is no correlation but there really was
type 2 error
failed to reject the null when you should have
type two error
Technique to avoid reactivity
unobtrusive measures
Use of microphone, one way mirrors to avoid reactivity
unobtrusive measures
Accuracy, truthfulness
Requires fewer people and more powerful
within subjects design