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53 Cards in this Set

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Three factors that bind cells togethre
1.Glycoproteins in the glycocalyx act as an adhesive
2.Wavy contours of the membranes of adjacent cells fit together in a tongue-and-groove fashion
3.Special membrane junctions are formed
Tight Junctions
a series of integral protein molecules in the plasma membranes of adjacent cells fuse together, forming an impermeable junction that encircles the cell
Desmosomes
are anchoring junctions--mechanical couplings scattered like rivets along the sides of abutting cells that prevent their separation
Gap Junction
adjacent plasma membranes are very close, and cells are connected by hollow cylinders called connexons composed of transmembrane proteins.
Tonicity
the ability of a solution to change the shape or tone of cells by altering their internal water volume
Hypertonic
solutions with a higher concentration of nonpenetrating solutes than seen in the cell. Cells immersed in hypertonic solutions lose water and shrink
Hypotonic
solutions that are more dilute (contain a lower concentration of nonpenetrating solutes) than cells
Sodium-potassium pump
1.binding of cytoplasmic Na+ to the pump protein stimulates phosphorylation by ATP
2.Phosphorylation causes the protein to change its shape
3.the shape change expels Na+ to the outside, and extracellular K+ binds
4.K+ binding triggers release of the phosphate group
5.Loss of phosphate restores the original conformation of the pump protein
6.K+ released and Na+ sites are ready to bind Na+ again; cycle repeats
Primary Active Transport
Energy source: ATP
transport of substances against concentration gradient; across the plasma membrane by a solute pump; directly uses energy of ATP hydrolysis
Secondary Active Transport
Energy Source: Ion concentration gradient maintained with ATP

Cotransport of two solutes across the membrane; energy is supplied by the ion gradient created by a primary active solute pump
Three factors that bind cells togethre
1.Glycoproteins in the glycocalyx act as an adhesive
2.Wavy contours of the membranes of adjacent cells fit together in a tongue-and-groove fashion
3.Special membrane junctions are formed
Tight Junctions
a series of integral protein molecules in the plasma membranes of adjacent cells fuse together, forming an impermeable junction that encircles the cell
Desmosomes
are anchoring junctions--mechanical couplings scattered like rivets along the sides of abutting cells that prevent their separation
Gap Junction
adjacent plasma membranes are very close, and cells are connected by hollow cylinders called connexons composed of transmembrane proteins.
Tonicity
the ability of a solution to change the shape or tone of cells by altering their internal water volume
Hypertonic
solutions with a higher concentration of nonpenetrating solutes than seen in the cell. Cells immersed in hypertonic solutions lose water and shrink
Hypotonic
solutions that are more dilute (contain a lower concentration of nonpenetrating solutes) than cells
Sodium-potassium pump
1.binding of cytoplasmic Na+ to the pump protein stimulates phosphorylation by ATP
2.Phosphorylation causes the protein to change its shape
3.the shape change expels Na+ to the outside, and extracellular K+ binds
4.K+ binding triggers release of the phosphate group
5.Loss of phosphate restores the original conformation of the pump protein
6.K+ released and Na+ sites are ready to bind Na+ again; cycle repeats
Primary Active Transport
Energy source: ATP
transport of substances against concentration gradient; across the plasma membrane by a solute pump; directly uses energy of ATP hydrolysis
Secondary Active Transport
Energy Source: Ion concentration gradient maintained with ATP

Cotransport of two solutes across the membrane; energy is supplied by the ion gradient created by a primary active solute pump
Exocytosis
sectretion or ejection of substances from a cell; the substance is enclosed in a membranous vesicle, which fuses with the plasma membrane and ruptures, releasing the substance to the exterior
Cell Adhesion Molecules (CAMs)
1.molecular "velcro" that cells use to anchor themselves to molecules in the extracellular space and to each other
2.the "arms" that migrating cells use to haul themselves past one another
3.SOS signals sticking out from the blood vessel lining that rally protective white blood cells to a nearby infected or injured area
4.Mechanical sensors that respond to local tension at the cell surface by stimulating synthesis or degradation of adhesive membrane junctions
5.transmitters of intracellular signals that direct cell migration, proliferation, and specialization
Interphase
stage in a cells life when it is carrying out normal metabolic activities
Prophase
Chromatin start to coil and form chromosomes, Asters and centrioles migrate to opposite ends of the cell
Metaphase
Chromosomes cluster in center of cell, spindle fibers attach to centromeres of chromosomes
Anaphase
Spindle fibers begin to separate chromosomes and pull them to opposite sides of the cell
Telophase and Cytokinesis
Chromosomes cluster in new daughter cells and start to form nucleous', membrane's of two daughter cells begin to pinch off and form the new cells
Special Characteristics of Epithelium Tissue
1.Polarity: all epithelia have an apical surface and a lower attached basal surface
2.Specialized contacts:epithelial cells fit close together to form continuous sheets
3.Supported by connective tissue: reticular lamina and basement membrane
4.Avascular but innervated: supplied by nerves but contains no blood vessels
5.Regeneration: can replace lost cells by cell devision
Simple Squamous Epithelium
Funciton:allows passage of materials by diffusion and filtration in sites where protection is not important; secretes lubricating substances in serosae
Location: Kidney glomeruli; air sacs of lungs; lining of heart; blood vessels, and lymphatic vessels; lining of ventral body cavitiy
Simple Cuboidal Epithelium
Funciton: secretion and absorption
Location:kidney tubules; ducts and secretory portions of small glands; ovary surface
Simple Columnar Epithelium
Function:absorption; secretion of mucus, enzymes, and other substances; ciliated type propels mucus by ciliary aciton
Location:nonciliated type lines most of the digestive tract, gallbladder, and excretory ducts of some glands; ciliated variety lines small bronchi, uterine tubes, and some regions of the uterus
Pseudostratified columnar epitheliam
Function:secretion, particularly of mucus; propulsion of mucus by ciliary action
Location:nonciliated type in male's sperm-carrying ducts and ducts of large glands; ciliated variety lines the trachea, most of the upper respiratory tract
Stratified Squamous Epithelium
Function:protexts underlying tissues in areas subjected to abrasion
Location:nonkeratinized type forms the moist linings of the esophagus, mouth, and vagina; keratinized variety forms the epidermis of the skin, a dry membrane
Transitional Epithelium
Funciton:Stretches readily and permits distension of urinary organ by contained urine
Location:lines of the ureters, bladder, and part of the urethra
Endocrine Glands
(ductless glands) Produce hormones that enter the blood or lymphatic fluid and travel to specific target organs.
Unicellular Exocrine Glands
(globlet cell) produce mucin that after it is dissolved in water becomes mucus that is secreted to protect and lubricate surfaces
Cutaneous Membrane
an organ system consisting of a keratinized stratified squamous epithelium firmly attached to a thick layer of dense irregular connective tissue
Steps of Tissue Repair
1.inflammation sets the stage
2.organization restores the blood supply
3.regeneration and fibrosis effect permanent repair
keratinocytes
produce keratin, arise in deepest part of epidermis
Melanocytes
spider shaped epithelial cells that synthesize melanin, are found in the deepest layer of the epidermis
Langerhan's cells
arise from bone marrow and migrate to the epidermis, are phagocytes, help to activate immune system
Merkel cells
present at the epidermal-dermal junction, functions as sensory recepter for touch
Layers of Epidermis
(deep to superficial)
Stratum Basale (Basal Layer)
Stratum Spinosum (prickly Layer)
Stratum Lucidum (clear layer/only visible in thick skin)
Stratum Corneum (horny layer)
Eccrine Sweat Glands
palms, soles of the feet, and forehead
Apocrine Glands
axillary and anogenital areas
Ceruminous glands
modified apocrine glands found in the lining of the external ear canal, secretes cerumen (ear wax)
Sebaceous glands
simple branched alveolar glands that are found all over the body
Basal Cell Carcinoma
least malignant and most common skin cancer, stratum basale cells proliferate, invading the dermis and hypodermis
Squamous cell carcinoma
arises from the keratinocytes of the stratum spinosum
melanoma
cancer of melanocytes, the most dangerous skin cancer because it is highly metastic and resistant to chemotherapy
osteoblasts
bone-forming cells
osteclasts
bone-destroying cells
osteogenic cells
bone stem cells that create osteoblasts