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61 Cards in this Set

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Factorial Design
Research design that involves all combinations of at least two values of two or more independent variables
Main Effect
In a factorial experiment, the effect of one IV, averaged over all levels of another IV
Interaction
When the effect of one IV depends on the level of another IV
Antagonistic Interaction
Interaction in which the two IVs tend to reverse each other's effects
Synergistic Interaction
Interaction in which the two IVs reinforce each other's effects
Ceiling-Effect Interaction
Interaction in which one variable has a smaller effect when paired with higher levels of a second varibale
Quasi Experiments
Research procedure in which the scientist must select subjects for different conditions from preexisting groups
Nonequivalent-Control-Group Design
Research design having both an experimental and a control group wherein subjects are not randomly assigned to groups
Interrupted Time-Series Design
Research design that allows the same group to be compared over time by considering the trend of the data before and after experimental manipulation
Repeated-Treatment Design
Design in which a treatment is withdrawn and then presented a second time
Cross-Sectional Study
A study that tests different age groups at the same time
Cohort
A group that has something in common, such as age
Longitudinal Study
A study that tests individuals in a single cohort over the course of time
Secular Trend
A change that is taking place in the general population over time
Cross-Sequential Design
Design used to help separate developmental, cohort, and secular effects
Time-Lag Effect
In a cross-sectional design, the effect resulting from comparing subjects of the same age at different times
Program Evaluation
A set of techniques for determining the effectiveness of a social service program
Stakeholders
People in an organization who stand to gain or lose by any change in it
Summative Evaluation
An evaluation of the quality of a project, often of after it is completed
Formative Evaluation
An evaluation of ways to improve a project while it is ongoing
Manipulation
Conditions or variables assigned or presented to a participant
Assignment
Pairing a subject with a condition or variable, according to the experimenter's plan
Observation
The record of behavior
Correlational Research
Nonexperimental research that measures two or more variables to determine the degree of relationship between them
Observational Research
Study method in which the researcher observes and records ongoing behavior but does not attempt to change it
Archival Research
Study method that examines existing records to obtain data and test hypotheses
Case Study
Exploratory study of an existing situation as a means of creating and testing a hypothesis
Survey
Assessing public opinion or individual characteristics by the use of questionnaire and sampling methods
Hermeneutics
The principles of interpretation of a text's meaning
Naturalistic Observation
Observational research of subjects in their natural environment carried out to disturb the subjects as little as possible
Unobtrusive research
Another term for naturalistic observation, commonly used in the social sciences
Nonreactive Research
Another term for naturalistic observation in the social sciences, emphasizing that the subjects are unaware that they are being studied
Physical Trace
Unobtrusive measure of behavior that sues physical evidence
Laboratory Observation
A type of observation that occurs in the laboratory rather than in the field
Participant-Observer Research
Observational research in which the observer participates in a group to record behavior
Archival Data
Factual information in existing records
Manifest Content
Content of a text or photograph as indicated by measuring the frequency of some objective word, phrase, or action
Latent Content
Content of a text or photograph as measured by the appearance of themes as interpreted by the researcher
Protocol
List of all the steps that subject goes through in a study
Pilot Study
Tentative, small scale study done to pretest and modify study design and procedures
Open-Ended Question
One that the respondents answer in their own words
Closed-Ended Question
One that limits the respondents to certain alternatives
Mutually Exclusive
Categories defined so that membership in one rules out membership in another
Exhaustive
Categories defined so that all possible cases will fall into one of them
Social Desirability
A characteristic of certain responses that causes people to choose that response even if it does not represent their true tendency or opinion
Verification Key
A collection of items on a questionnaire designed to detect dishonest answers
Acquiescence
The tendency to agree with a statement on a questionnaire, regardless of its content
Visual Analogue Scale
A question that asks for a response by marking a line between the minimum or maximum value for the statement
Likert Scale
A question that asks for a rating of the extent of agreement or disagreement with a statement; a rating scale
Response Rate
In survey research, the percentage of individuals in the sample who return the completed survey
Haphazard Sample
Population subgroup for whose selection the researcher uses hit-or-miss methods
Purposive Sample
A nonrandom sample that is chose for some characteristic that it possesses
Convenience Sample
A nonrandom sample that is chosen for practical reasons
Random Sample
A sample in which every member of the population has an equal and independent chance of being selected
Sampling Frame
A population as it is defined for the purposes of selecting subjects for a study
Element
Individual member of a sampling frame
Systematic Sample
A probability sample that is not randomly selected
Simple Random Sample
Group chosen from an entire population such that every member of the population has an equal and independent chance of being selected in a single sample
Stratified Random Sample
A random sample in which two or more subsamples are represented according to some predetermined proportion, generally in the same proportion as they exist in the population
Cluster Sample
Group selected by using clusters or groupings from a larger population
Multistage Sampling
A form of cluster sampling in which clusters are further broken down by taking samples from each cluster