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87 Cards in this Set

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trait approach to personality
views behavioral patterns in a general sense and as stable across time and situation, sees individual differences as rooted in biology
factor analysis
determining which traits are encompassed by others in order to narrow down the list of factors influencing personality
big five personality traits
OCEAN
1) openness to experience
2) conscientiousness
3) extraversion
4) agreeableness
5) neuroticism
twin approach to testing for heritability
compare monozygotic twins raised together to dizygotic twins raised together or perhaps monozygotic twins raised together to monozygotic twins raised apart
what value stands for the heritability index (i.e. the measure of how heritable a trait is)?
h^2 or h squared
h^2 = 1.00 means
the trait is completely heritable (this is never the case)
h^2 = .00 means
the expression of a trait is completely based on the environment with no genetic contribution
how much of trait variability can be attributed to genes? (%?)
40%
how much can be attributed to environment?
one must break this down into shared vs. unshared environment between an individual and another given person
shared = 5%
unshared = 35%
passive influence
a person happens to be in a certain environment and their personality develops based on that environment
evocative influence
a trait/behavior evokes a response in others, which in turn reinforces that behavior (e.g. child is combative, so people ignore him, so he becomes more combative)
active influence
person has a certain personality and deliberately puts themselves in situations based on the way that they behave (e.g. outgoing people decide to go to parties)
mean level change
take a group of people, measure some aspect of their personality at one point in time (calculate the mean) and then later (calculate the mean again) and the difference you see between these means is the mean level change
differential continuity
take a group of people, measure some aspect of their personality (e.g. extroversion) and you be able to rank people from most extroverted to least- if this same order of extroversion is seen from a first measurement to a later one, then there is differential continuity
what is explanatory style?
the way in which someone explains why something happened to them/ how much they downplay or exaggerate the implications of an event
locus of control
ASK GABBY, SAACHI, AND JELYN!
*related to Mastery-Oriented vs. Helpless and Entity vs. Incremental Theorists?
internal vs. external explanations of an event e.g. why your boyfriend is ignoring your calls
internal- I did something wrong and he must be mad about it
external- his phone probably died or he is really busy and can't call back right now
stable vs. unstable explanations of an event e.g. why you failed your psych exam
stable- I just failed because I didn't study enough for this particular exam
unstable- I will fail every exam in the future because I have a terrible memory and will never understand psych
(note: stable/ unstable explanations differ from global/ specific b/c they are related to TIME)
global vs. specific explanations of an event e.g. why your boyfriend broke up with you
global- I am not interesting enough, not pretty enough, not smart enough, etc.
specific- he is applying to medical school and just doesn't have time to commit to a relationship
two styles of thinking, explaining, and responding to failure
mastery-oriented vs. helpless
mastery-oriented attitude toward failure
thinks that one succeeds or fails based on how much effort they put into something and their next move if they fail is to rethink their strategy
helpless attitude toward failure
thinks that one succeeds or fails based on ability and their next move if they fail is to avoid the same situation the next time around
what is attributional style?
the way that someone explains the behavior of themselves and others
dispositional attributions of behavior
explaining someone's behavior as a product of their personality i.e. "that's just how he is"
situational attributions of behavior
explaining someone's behavior as a product of the given situation i.e. "he must be having a bad day"
who developed the entity and incremental theories?
Dweck and Leggett
entity theory i.e. fixed mindset
the belief that characteristics are fixed and unchangeable
incremental theory i.e. growth mindset
the belief that characteristics are malleable and can be improved and developed thru effort
an entity theorist would have a ______ response to failure
helpless
an incremental theorist would have a ______ response to failure
mastery-oriented
social-cognitive approach to personality
examines one's individual thoughts, feelings, and behavior in response to the the environment, considering these responses to be learned thru previous experience and biological bases
psychodynamic approach to personality
I think that it focuses on unconscious influences on personality
what are the 3 provinces of the mind?
1) id
2) superego
3) ego
id
i is for Id, i is for Instincts
home of unconscious sexual and aggressive instincts
(operates according to the pleasure principle or the instinctive drive to seek pleasure and avoid pain)
superego
s is for super, s is for strict
the province of the mind that is unconsciously and consciously concerned with morals and societal norms/ideals)
(like your conscience because it is focused on morals and like your own personal peer pressure center because it focuses on the ideals of society)
ego
unconsciously and consciously manages the conflicting demands of the id and superego (operates according to the reality principle, the main goal of which is compromise formation)
the 6 defense mechanisms
Robert Pattinson Really Despises Doing Situps
1) Repression
2) Projection
3) Reaction Formation
4) Denial
5) Displacement
6) Sublimation
repression
of memories
projection
convincing yourself that those around you are feeling the same way you are so that you can feel better about your own feelings (e.g. when sitting waiting for an interview, feeling really nervous, you turn to the person next to you and say OMG you looks so nervous!)
reaction formation
when a person acts very differently than how they feel inside (e.g. homophobic boy from Glee who was all mean to Kurt, but one day, tried to kiss him)
denial
either denying that something happened at all or downplaying the severity of a situation
displacement
taking out your frustration not on the person who has upset you, but on someone else (often someone who loves you unconditionally)
sublimation
taking negative feelings and making something positive out of them (e.g. Taylor Swift, who always says "at least I got a good song out of it")
another defense mechanism not on the power point, but that she mentioned in class
rationalizing
rationalizing i.e. excessive self-justification
always trying to find a good reason for why you did something, even if that something was not right
the 5 techniques of psychoanalysis
People Can Fly In Dreams
1) Projective Techniques
2) Catharsis
3) Free Association
4) Insight
5) Dream Analysis
free association
patient freely talks and psychologist attempts to make connections
insight and catharsis
therapist guides a patient to a point where they feel like they understand all of their issues (insight) and experience a moment of catharsis or epiphany
dream analysis
done because there is a belief that one's latent/ unacknowledged stress manifests itself in their dreams in the form of symbols
projective techniques
attempt to find a pattern in people's perceptions of images
(e.g. inkblot test or TAT test)
TAT test
Thematic Apperception Test
subject is shown pictures with ambiguous meanings and asked:
what has led up to the event shown?
what are the characters feeling and thinking?
what was outcome of the story?
cognitive vulnerability
the level of vulnerability one has to becoming stressed and in turn depressed (i.e. to feel helpless and hopeless)
helplessness/ helplessness
feeling like one has no control (leads to self-blame and stable/global explanations of failure)
locus of control
a person's belief system about why certain negative and positive events occur in their lives
humanistic approach to personality
"finding yourself" i.e. putting in a conscious effort to develop one's true self and achieve personal growth
types of goal content
intrinsic and extrinsic
intrinsic goal content
goals consist of personal growth, community involvement, doing a good job i.e. being competent
extrinsic goal content
material things, money, fame, etc.
strivings
what you strive for
- if your strivings are intrinsic, you are generally more happy
- if they are extrinsic, you are generally more anxious and less happy they are
3 conditions under which therapy can happen according to the humanistic approach
1) acceptance of patient by therapist
2) therapist must hold patient in positive regard
3) empathic understanding (patient must feel like the therapist understands them)
narrative approach
(part of the humanistic approach)
creating a life story to give meaning to identity development
McAdams study (life story interview)
participants were asked for:
1) life chapters
2) significant memories
3) life challenge
4) influential people in your life
5) future plot/ goals
6) life theme
types of life themes
agency and communion
agency
coded for self mastery, status/victory, achievement/responsibility, & empowerment
(focused on oneself)
communion
coded for love/friendship, dialogue, caring/help, & unity/togetherness
(focused on others)
types of emotional sequencing
redemption and contamination
redemption
negative event ends positively
contamination
positive event ends negatively
Freud's perspective to human motivation
humans have dangerous/threatening basic impulses that must be controlled in order for them to function in society
humanistic approach to human motivation
basic human motivation is to grow and develop oneself and interference/ distortion of this motivation is a product of society and other people
how do we define abnormality i.e. abnormal behavior?
behavior that:
- is physically harmful to the individual or others
- causes the person emotional suffering
- interferes with functioning in daily life (e.g. OCD)
- causes one to lose touch with reality and thus lose self-control
how do we diagnose abnormality?
with the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual i.e. the DSM, which classifies various abnormal disorders
3 benefits of the DSM/ having specific criteria for diagnosing disorders?
1) common language and thus better communication
2) allows one to compare disorders side by side
3) organized, which facilitates research and the process of finding an appropriate treatment
2 risks of the DSM/ having specific criteria for diagnosing disorders?
1) if one is labeled as having a disorder, they may take this to mean that they are not healthy or normal, which can be harmful to their state of mind
2) it may not be correct to say that disorders can be separated into nice, neat categories- it is likely that it is more of a continuum
3) can lead to stereotyping- psychologists may have an idea in their head about what a schizophrenic person is like for instance and this may influence their diagnosis (i.e. they may not treat every patient as a unique individual)
8 examples of DSM major categories of disorders
Some Say Eating Many Applies Prevents Doctor Days
1) Substance-related disorders
2) Schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders
3) Eating disorders
4) Mood disorders
5) Anxiety disorders (e.g. phobias and OCD)
6) Personality disorders
7) Dissociative disorders
8) Disorders originating in infancy/childhood/adolescence
the 5 Axes of the DSM (psychologists start at Axis 1 and go down the line when diagnosing patients)
1) check to see if patient has one of the most frequently diagnosed disorders
2) figure out whether or not it is a long standing disorder like some personality disorder or mental retardation
3) eliminate the possibility that it may be being caused by some medical cause (i.e. overactive thyroid) aka check out relevant general medical conditions
4) make sure symptoms are not the result of some psychosocial or environmental cause
5) GAF (Global Assessment of psychological, social ,and occupational Functioning) - once disorder is diagnosed and treatment has begun, you use the GAF
symptoms of depression
- persistent sadness
- anhedonia (lack of pleasure in activities that used to make you happy)
- changes in sleep/appetite
- fatigue
- feelings of worthlessness/ guilt
- thoughts of death/ suicide
symptoms of bipolar disorder/ mania
- inflated sense of power
- euphoria
- accelerated speech
- excessive creation of unrealistic goals
- overindulgence in pleasurable activities like shopping or sex
- little to no need for sleep
symptoms of panic disorder
- having repeated panic attacks that have no apparent trigger
- agoraphobia i.e. a severe decrease in activity because one is constantly afraid that they will have a panic attack
cognitive perspective on panic disorder
many panic attacks occur because a person thinks they are having a panic attack when they really aren't, this increasing stress levels, and resulting in a real panic attack
2 types of agoraphobia/ avoidance
1) interoceptive: avoiding situations that simulate the bodily feelings associated with having a panic attack (i.e. intense exercise)
2) exteroceptive: avoiding situations with external characteristics that remind you of places/situations in which you have previously had panic attacks
diathesis- stress model
attributes mental illness to genetic predisposition and precipitating life events
treatment for depression
medications (e.g. SSRIs or Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors) in addition to therapy (the gold standard of which is cognitive, which aims to change one's cognitions/ attitudes)
treatment for bipolar disorder
mood-stabilizing drugs plus creating a strictly regimented schedule for the patient's day to decrease stress
treatment for OCD
cognitive-behavioral therapy
1) change a person's attitudes
2) change a person's behavior
(e.g. making germophobes put their hands in a dumpster)
symptoms of anorexia nervosa
- intense fear of gaining weight (which increases as weight decreases)
- distorted perception of body image
- denial of how thin you are
- in women, loss of menstrual cycle for 3 months and in men, decreased libido
treatments of phobias
systematic desensitization aka exposure (exposing a person to their fears via a fear hierarchy i.e. baby steps from least stressful situations to more)