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65 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
The rightness or wrongness of a decision
Ethical Decision Making
4 components that comprise the foundation of ethical decision making
Ethical Intensity
Ethical Principles & Rules
Benefits & Costs
Determination of Rights
The degree of moral importance given to an issue
Ethical Intensity
Ethical Intensity Determined by:
Magnitude of consequences
Probability of effect
Social Consensus
Ethical Intensity Determined by:
Temporal Immediacy
Proximity
Concentration of Effect
3 ethical justifications
Self Serving Principle
Balancing Interests Principle
Concern for Others
do whatever is in your own self interest
Hedonist
Do whatever you are powerful enough to impose on others
Might-equals-right
Do whatever is good for the organization
Organization Interests
Allow the ends (good) to justify the means (which may be unethical).
Means-Ends
Weigh the harm and the benefit of the decision.
Utilitarian
Can your decision be explained to a group of your peers?
Professional Standards
can your decision be explained to the general public.
Disclosure
treat people/groups equitably
Distributive Justice
place yourself in the position of someone affected by the decision.
Golden Rule
Requires an understanding of the interests and values of those affected.
Use utilitarian principle.
Can’t assume that other’s values are the same as yours.
Benefits & Costs
Models of Managerial Decision Making
Rational Model
Bounded Rationality
Political Model
Process of choosing among alternatives to maximize benefit to the organization
Rational Model
Comprehensive problem definition
Thorough data collection and analysis
Careful assessment of alternatives
Exchange of info. is unbiased
Everyone tries to find an alternative that is best for the org.
Rational Model
Takes a lot of time
May consume more resources than the benefit you get from it.
Needs a lot of info. that may be hard to get.
Inconsistent with dynamic environments
limitations of the rational model
Select the best alternative
Limited search until acceptable alternative is found
Look at less than all possible alternatives
Bounded Rationality
select acceptable, rather than optimal alternative
Satisficing
continuing a process despite a significant amount of negative feedback.
Escalation of Commitment
the tendency to interpret issues as either positive or negative.
problem framing
People tend to be risk averse – see change as negative
Favorable circumstances
Less risk averse – see change as positive
Unfavorable circumstances
Systematically creating systems to transfer info, experience, know-how across the org
Knowledge Management
data in meaningful context
Information
That which a person comes to believe and value through experience, communication, and inference
knowledge
Developed from direct experience
Shared through conversation and storytelling
tacit knowledge
More precise and formally expressed
Explicit Knowledge
Decision making by individuals to satisfy their own interests
political knowledge
Methods used to tilt the outcome in the decision maker’s favor
Data collection
Info exchange
Evaluation criteria
complex pattern of beliefs, expectations, values, and attitudes shared by memebers of the org. that evolve over time.
organizational culture
Basic beliefs about reality, human nature, right and wrong, how things should be done
shared assumptions
basic level of philosophy
epistemology
collective beliefs about what things are good valuable and normal
values
behaviors that reflect underlying values/beliefs
shared behaviors
words(jargon) pictures, things posted on the walls decorations
symbols
External adaptation and survival:
-finding niche where the org. can survive
-mission and strategy - primary purpose of the org.
-goals and objectives
-means- how to pursue goals
forming culture
how to judge success/goal attainment
measurement
common methods of communicating
language and concepts
criteria for membership in groups - who will make decisions
group boundaries
rules for getting, distributing, and losing power
power and status
systems for encouraging desirable behaviors
rewards/punishment
the events that get noticed and commented on sends strong signals about what is important and expected
what managers pay attention to
can reinforce existing values or introduce new values
reactions to incidents and crises
values are communicated to employees by the way supervisors treat them
role models, teachers and coaching
rewarding behaviors sends signals about the priority of the behavior to mgt.
-perks can be distributed to support certain behaviors
-if rewards are poorly aligned hurt culture stregth
allocation of rewards/status
-what managers pay attention to
-reactions to incidents
-role models and coaching
-allocation of rewards
-ceremonies
-attraction and selection
-org. stories
ways to sustain and culture.
mostly bureaucratic
disney
mostly entrepreneurial
stu leonards
balance
3M
apply
mostly clan culture.
IBM
mostly market
try to increase profits
top-down
focuses on changing strategy & structure
economic approach
increase employee development
-make values that employees will buy into and participate in
-focus on changing culture and the way people think about things
-no need for top down
org. development approach
Sequencing the two approaches
-First do economic approach ( to influence the short term)
-Then do org. development approach (to help the long term
Assessing the functioning of the organization to discover the sources of problems and areas for improvement
Organizational Diagnosis
Info needed for diagnosis are gathered from
- questionarries, interviews, observation, and org. records
1. Perceived Personal Risk from change
2. Level of discontent with current state according to employees
3. Expectations of employees
Employee Readiness For Change:
-habit, comfort, security
-lack of self esteem
-threat of power
-fear of unknown
Resistance to Change
usually involves reducing forces maintaining org. behavior at present level
1. Unfreezing
Levin’s Three Step Change Process
shifts the org. behaviors to a new level
2. Moving
Levin’s Three Step Change Process
stabilizes new values and state of equilibrium
3. Refreezing
Levin’s Three Step Change Process