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171 Cards in this Set

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Light-dependent reactions are also known as what?
Light reactions
Light Reactions occur where?
On the thylakoids
What do light reactions actually do?
Collect light energy and convert it to chemical energy
This chemical energy is in what form?
ATP & NADPH2, both are produced through the electron transport chain
What are two other names light-independent reactions known as?
Calvin Cycle or the Calvin-Benson Cycle
Light-Independent Reactions occur where?
In the stroma
Light-independent reactions are mediated... by what, and why?
By enzymes, because they are sensitive to pH and temperature
Light-independent reactions use energy from what sources to reduce CO2 and sugar?
ATP & NADPH2
What does "reduce" mean in this case?
Add hydrogens
What is a carbon fixation?
COnverting molecule from a non-usable to usable form, CO2 to C6H12O6, also converting inorganic to organic form.
What do pigments do?
Absorb light and actually show what is reflected (in a leaf, the color green is reflected)
Pigments are embedded where?
In the thylakoids
What do accessory pigments do?
Extend usable wavelengths of light
What color is a carotenoid?
Orange-ish
What color is a xanthophyll?
Yellow-ish
What is a photon?
A packet of light
What do photons act as?
A wave & particle
Energy in photons need to go somewhere... where do they go?
They are dissapated as heat, re-emitted as light (fluorescence), and captured and chemical bond.
What do light reactions convert to?
Chemical energy
Where does the chiosmotic gradient occur?
Protons
What are thylakoids used for?
To produce ATP
The reaction center in photosystem II is what?
P680
P680 means what?
Pigments and proteins
What are antenna?
Accessory pigments
What happens in anntennae?
Light bounces two electrons out of the reaction center
What happens to these two electrons?
They are transferred to chlorophyll which bounces two electrons out of chlorophyll.
And what happens to THOSE two electrons?
They are boosted to a higher energy state
What does lysis mean?
Breakdown of the cell caused by damage to the plasma membrane
When lysis occurs in the cell, what is released?
O2, electrons, protons
What are these released protons used for?
Establishment of the chiosmotic gradient.
What happens after lysis occurs?
2 electrons are passed through the electron transport chain.
The chemisomotic gradient across thylakoids is used to make what?
ATP
At this point, there is a high concentration of what in the lumen of the thylakoids?
Protons
What happens to the two electrons?
They are used to fill the electron hold in photosystem I
Hydrogens end up reducing what?
NADP
The reaction center in photosystem I is what?
P700
P700 means what?
Protons and pigments
How many turns of the Calvin Cycle are required for glucose?
6 turns
Calvin Cycle is heavily dependent on what?
Enzymes
What does the Calvin Cycle do?
Regenerates starting material
What does the Calvin Cycle use?
ATP & NADPH2
Where does the Calvin Cycle occur?
In the stroma of the chloroplasts
Who was Gregor Mendel?
A monk in the 1800's who worked out the patterns of inheritence.
What did Mendel use?
The garden pea
Were his experiments accurate?
Yes
What did Mendel's work do?
Provided reasonable explanation of how natural selection operates.
What is the idea of natural selection?
If there is an inheritable trait that provides an advantage allows offspring of that individual will be more likely to survive another organism that did not have this trait.
The environment allows an organism with advantageous traits to do what?
Survive, reproduce, and pass traits to offspring.
Mendel's work was buried... when was it rediscovered?
In 1910 by Thomas Hunt Morgan
What are Mendel's Laws?
The Law of Segregation and the Laws of Independent Assortment
What is the Law of Segregation?
During meiosis, the two homologs of a pair seperate into different daughter nuclei; this occurs in anaphase I.
The Laws of Independent Assortment claim what?
Chromosomes sort independent of each other, patterns are established in metaphase I, and different types of all possible gametes by mixing up material (red) and potential (blue) chromosomes.
The number of different gametes is 2N, where n...
n = the number of heterozygous chromosomes
What is a gene?
A segment of DNA that codes for a characteristic
What is an allele?
Alternate forms of a gene
What is dominance?
One allele may overpower another
What is recessiveness?
Allele that is overpowered
What is epistasis?
Two alleles are expressed at once
What is a phenotype?
Physical appearance of the trait
What is a genotype?
Actual form of the gene (RR, Rr)
What is a monohybrid cross?
Mating dealing with one gene
When doing a monohybrid cross, which gametes are dominant and which are recessive?
Female gametes are dominant, male gametes are recessive
How do you predict gamete type?
Tree diagram
How do you determine if an organism that expresses a dominant trait is homozygous or heterozygous?
Cross them with a homozygous recessive
What is a dihybrid cross?
A cross with two characteristics.
These two characteristics- are they linked?
No, they are unlinked and on different chromosomes.
The phenotypic ratio of a dihybrid cross is always what?
9:3:3:1
During what phase of interphase does DNA copy itself?
S phase
What is semi-conservative replication?
Where the new DNA is a compliation of half old and half new DNA.
Who officially discovered the structure DNA?
Watson and Crick
How did Rosaline Franklin and Wilkins contribute?
They were X-ray crystallographers who found the regular repeating pattern in DNA.
Who realized the significance of these patterns?
Watson
When did Watson and Crick publish their work?
1954
What is Chargaff's rule?
A=T; C=G
How many hydrogen bonds does A-T have?
2 hydrogen bonds
How many hydrogen bonds does G-C have?
3 hydrogen bonds
DNA is a double-stranded alpha helix. What does this mean?
It means it is twisted to the right.
What are the four requirements for DNA replication?
DNA template, dATP, dTTP, dCTP, dGTP, DNA polymerase complex, and chemical energy.
What is the DNA template?
One strand acts as a pattern for a new strand (semi-conservative)
What does dATP stand for?
Adenison Triphosphate
What does dTTP stand for?
Thymine Triphosphate
What does dCTP stand for?
Cytosine Triphosphate
What does dGTP stand for?
Guanine Triphosphate
dATP, dTTP, dCTP, & dGTP are present as a "pool" where in the cell?
In the nucleus
What is DNA polymerase complex?
DNA is a macromolecule, so it is a polymer of nucleotides.
Where is the chemical energy in DNA replication taken from?
ATP, also all four nucleotide triphosphates break off one or more phosphate groups and release energy
Replication takes place in two steps... what are they?
DNA strands seperate locally and nucleotides are covalently added to the 3' end of the growing DNA molecule
When the strand seperate locally, what happens to the DNA during this time?
H bonds are broken between base pairs and DNA is melted (denatured)
DNA, at this point, is threaded through a replication complex. A replication complex is also known as what?
Polymerase complex
Polymerase complex recognizes the origin of ___________ and binds it to ___.
Replication, DNA
"ori" means what?
Specific sequence of bases on DNA
What does DNA helicase do?
It unwinds DNA locally and melts DNA
What do single-stranded binding proteins do?
Keeps DNA strands seperate
What does RNA primase do?
Makes a short fragment of RNA
What is RNA primase referred to as?
RNA Primer
Why is RNA Primer needed?
DNA polymerase can't start a DNA molecule (it can only elongate one) This actually starts the molecule.
After RNA Primer does its job, what happens?
DNA polymerase then adds nucleotides to the 3' end
After DNA is all done making a new, local fragment, what happens?
DNA polymerase proofreads new DNA strand
How many errors are there before proofreading?
One error in 10,000,000 bases
How many errors are there after proofreading?
One error in 10,000,000,000 bases
DNA Polymerase replaces bad spots with what?
The correct nucleotide
What heals the damaged sugar phosphate bone?
Ligase
The opposite strand of DNA is synthesized in discontinuous fragments. What are these fragments called?
Okazaki fragments
How are these Okazaki fragments joined to the new DNA?
By ligase
How is the RNA Primer removed from the new DNA?
The DNA editing function
The 5' end of a new nucleotide attached to the __ end of an old nucleotide.
3'
What is transcription?
DNA language is turned into RNA language
DNA is a template for what?
RNA synthesis
The order of bases in DNA dictates what?
The order of bases in RNA
When do you use a Punnett Square?
When you're crossing gametes
When do you use a tree diagram?
When you're making gametes
Instead of Thymine, what is the RNA equivalent?
Uracil
When DNA unwinds and melts, what does it allow?
It allows RNA polymerase to start making RNA
How many strands of DNA are transcribed at a time?
One
How many base pairs are unwound at one time?
About 20
DNA does/does not contain punctuation
It does
RNA polymerase binds where?
The initiation site
The beginning sequence of punctuation is how many nucleotides?
Three
What is always the first amino acid?
Methionine
What are the three bases that code for methionine in RNA?
AUG
What are the three bases that code ofr methionine in DNA?
TAC
In transcription, the RNA molecule elongates. How is this process done?
DNA unwinds in front of RNA polymerase, RNA nucleotides are added to the 3' end of growing RNA, and DNA rewinds behind RNA polymerase.
What occurs during termination?
Stop sequence in DNA, RNA polymerase stops, RNA polymerase falls off the DNA, and the newly made RNA is released.
What are the five RNA characteristics?
Anti-parallel and complimentary to DNA template, Uracil replaced thymine, single-stranded, Pre-RNA is processed into three types, and RNA is transported from the nucleus to the cytoplasm.
TGGCAGCTTT

Find the anti-parallel and complimentary RNA sequence.
UCCGACGUUU
In the "pool" of nucleotides in the nucleus , what is also present besides dATP, dTTP, dCTP, & dGTP?
UTP
What are the three RNA types?
tRNA, mRNA, and rRNA
What does tRNA stand for?
Transfer RNA
What does mRNA stand for?
Messenger RNA
What does rRNA stand for?
Ribosomal RNA
What does mRNA do?
Codes for amino acid sequence
How many tRNA's are there for each amino acid?
Just one
What does tRNA do?
Binds to an amino acid, carries it to the ribosome, & binds to complimentary base pairing.
What shape is tRNA?
Clover leaf
rRNA is part of what?
The ribosome (duh!)
Ribozymes act as what?
Enzymes
How is RNA transported from the nucleus to the cytoplasm?
Through nuclear pores
When does transcription occur?
All the time except during M phase when chromosomes are condensed and RNA cannot be transcribed
What is translation?
The term for the process of turning the RNA code into a protein
Where does translation occur?
In the cytoplasm on ribosomes
Ribosomes are synthesized into two subunits. What are they?
Large and small
How does the ribosome subunit exit the nucleus?
Through nuclear pores
Do these subunits combine or remain seperate?
Remain seperate
What binds to the small subuniits of ribosome?
mRNA
What, in turn, binds to the mRNA?
Large subunits
tRNA is _________.
Specific
How is the clover-leaf shape of tRNA stabalized?
By internal base pairing
One end of the clover-leaf shape of tRNA binds to what?
The amino acid
What does the other end of tRNA bind to?
mRNA
What happens at the aminoacyl site?
The amino acid binds there
What does aminoacyl transferase do?
Catalyzes amino acid binding
The binding of the amino acid to the aminoacyl site requires...
Energy
After all this happens, the tRNA is referred to as "_______"
"charged"
What initiates translation?
Codons in mRNA, also methionine
The anticodon of tRNA binds to the what in mRNA and brings its amino acid?
Codon
After translation has been primarily initiated, what happens?
Elongation occurs
During elongation, each mRNA codon binds to the next what?
tRNA anticodon
tRNA, when it is in the process of binding and elongation, has what attached to it?
An amino acid
Each amino acid, when they're next to each other on their own respective tRNA molecules, they form what kind of bond?
A polypeptide bond
How do these amino acids form a polypeptide bond?
It is catalyzed by ribozyme
The first tRNA (methionine) does what at this point?
Lets go of the ribosome and amino acid
When it lets go, where does the ribosome complex move?
To the next codon
After it's all done doing this b.s., termination occurs. What happens during termination?
A signal in mRNA says "stop", release factors bind, tRNA falls off, completed protein is released, and the ribosome falls apart.
During protein processing, what is cut off?
Methionine
Methionine isn't absolutely necessary. Why?
It's just a starter protein; it's not needed for processing
The signal sequence at the start of protein processing does what?
Directs the protein to cellular digestion.
Proteins that lack a signal sequence do what?
Stay in the cytoplasm
Modifications during protein processing include what three modifications?
Cleavage, glycolsylation, and phosphorylation
What does "glycolsylation" mean?
"add sugar"
During glycolsylation, what do you end up with?
Glycoproteins
What does "phosphorylation" mean?
"Add phosphate"