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66 Cards in this Set

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PLEOTROPHY
alleles at a single locus that may have effects of 2 or more traits
MARFAN SYNDROME
ex. of pleotrophy; mutation in a gene for fibrillin that affects skeleton, cardio. system, lungs, eyes, and skin.
EPISTASIS
interaction between products of gene pairs.
(allele frequency where it doesnt matter what gene is there, the shape remains the same.)
CONTINUOUS VARIATION
continuous range of small differences in a given trait among individuals.
-AKA Polygenic Traits - traits are affected at more than one loci. (hair color, eye color, and skin tone)
-more genes affected the more continuous the variation.
Phenotypes are a combination of:
getetics and environment
Humans have __ pairs of auburosomes and __ pair(s) of sex chromosomes
22, 1
PEDIGREE
Chart of genetic connections among individuals used to fallow traits in humans through generations and determine genotypes of individuals.
Colorblindness and hemophilia are what type of traits
X-linked
AUTOSOMAL RECESSIVE INHERITANCE
2 recessive alleles must be present for that trait to be displayed.
RECESSIVE DISORDERS
disorders carried on recessive genes and the parents may be carriers.
ex. cystic fibrosis, sickle cell, and albinism
DOMINANT DISORDERS
disorders carried on dominant alleles. if you have one allele coding for a disease then you will get it.
ex. huntinton's disease and achindroplasia
PROGERIA
dominant disorder arises bc of a spontaneous mutation in which a person ages extremely fast; 19 being the oldest.
ANEOPLOIDY
Downs Syndrome; and extra chromosome where the 21st pair of homologous chromosomes is normally located.
NONDISJUNCTION
where chromosome pairs or sister chromosomes fail to separate - causes abnormal number of chromosomes in gametes
KLEINFELTER SYNDROME
XXY, usually sterile, feminine charectoristics
Males with XXY
Usually taller
Females with XXY
metafemales, limited fertility
TURNER SYNDROME
XO where the female is sterile, short stature, webbing of the neck.
DNA is composed of
Nucleotides
Nucleotides are composed of
a phosphate group, nitrogenous base, and 5 carbon sugar.
DNA is composed of 4 bases. These bases are:
Adenine, Guanine, thymine, and Cytosine.
A pairs with T
G pairs with C
Structure of DNA:
two polynucleotide strands wrapped around each other in a double helix.
-base pairs provide the steps of double helix
-phosphates and sugars provide the railings.
In DNA replication each parent strand forms:
a template
Every DNA Strand half ___ and half ____.
old and new
Enzymes do what in DNA replication?
unwind the two strands
What happens with DNA while enzymes are in replication
DNA Polymerase attaches complementary nucleotides and the DNA Ligase joins the fragments on the loagging strands.
there is a continuous ________ strand that contains no breaks and falls the DNA unwinding and a discontinuous _________ strand.
Leading, Lagging
DNA replication occurs in a
3 to 5 prime
Instructions for how to build proteins are contained in
DNA (in genes)
Two Steps to produce all proteins:
1. Transcription
2. Translation
DNA is TRANSCRIBED to form
RNA
DNA TRANSCRIPTION occurs in
the nucleus; then leaves the nucleus and travels to the ribosome
RNA is TRANSCRIBED to form
polypeptide chains
RNA TRANSCRIPTION occurs at the
ribosome.
polypeptide chains from transcription make up
proteins
mRNA
carries protein building instructions from the nucleus to the ribosome
tRNA
delivers amino acids to the ribosome.
RNA has ___ instead of ____
Uracil instead of Thymine
TRANSCRIPTION
single strand of mRNA is formed from DNA template
Codons
Composed of three nucleotide bases found on the mRNA, the "triplets" of bases code for specific amino acids = genetic code.
There are _____ different codons that code for amino acids.
61; 3 are stop codons that terminate the amino acid chain.
TRANSLATION
when tRNA's attach to amino acids in the cytoplasm and bring them to the ribosome.
tRNA have base triplets called:
Anticodons
mRNA have base triplets called:
Codons
Amino Acids are strung together to make
Polypeptides that compose proteins
What type of disease is Huntington's disease?
Dominant Disorder
GENE EXPRESSION
the process through which genetic info flows from genes to proteins.
-Turned off and on by turning transcription off and on.
CELLULAR DIFFERENTATION
when cells become specialized in structure and function in the many divisions that lead from a unicellular zygote to a multicellular organism.
structure and function of a cell is dictated by:
the genes that are turned on in a cell
ZYGOTE
has one complete set of genes
CLONE
genetically identical copy
-in nature, aspen trees, strawberries
Clones Created by Humans
Dolly - cell taken from udder of one sheep and egg from another used but with nucleus removed(no dna). egg and udder cell fused by electical stimulus. Fused cell develops as embryo and in implanted into a surrogate mother.
1952
Frog Cloned from intestinal cell of tadpole
1984
first sheep cloned from differentiated cell
1986
first cattle cloned from differentiated cell.
-cattle can be cloned from a side of beef
Embryonic Stem cells
Give rise to all the specialized cells of the body
THERAPUTIC CLONING
transplant of nucleus from patients cells into developing embryonic stem cells and then harvest the stem cells at a very early age.
-can replace damaged tissue with new tissue
REPRODUCTIVE CLONING
exact genetic copy of human is made.
-ethical concerns
Adult stem cells can give rise to
differentiated cells.
-but they are harder to culture than embryonic; and give rise only to a limited range of cell types.
ONCOGENE
gene that causes cancer
PROTO-ONCOGENE
normal gene that can be converted to a oncogene
What causes Proto-oncogenes to become oncogenes?
Mutations in DNA
TUMOR-SUPPRESSOR GENES
inhibit uncontrolled cell division
CARCINOGENS
cancer causing agents
-aka mutagens
-can cause changes in DNA
OB GENE
codes for Leptin which controlls obesity, cut from mouse; worth $20 mil.
RESTRICTION ENZYMES
found in bacteria and are used to cut DNA in invading viruses.