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33 Cards in this Set

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The entry and multiplication of an infectious agent in the tissues of a host.
Infection
A place where a pathogen can survive but may or may not multiply.
Resevoir
Most common reservoir...
human body
Where organisms can enter the body, buty also use same route for exiting
Portal of Entry
List 5 Defenses Against Infection:
1.Inflammatory Response
2.Normal Flora
3.Use of Broadspectrum Antibiotics
4.Body System Defenses
5.Inflammation
A protective reaction that neutralizes pathogens and repairs body cells.
Inflammatory Response
Normal microorganisms that reside on the surface and deep layers of skin, in the saliva and oral mucosa, and in the gastrointestinal and genitourinary tracts.
Normal Flora
Used for the treatment of infection can lead to suprainfection.
Used of Broadspectrum Antibiotics
A number of body organ system that have unique defenses against infection like the skin and respiratory tract.
Body Defense System
Body's cellular response to injury or infection is...
Inflammation
Factors that effect Client Susceptiblitiy to Infection:
1.Age
2.Nutritional Status
3.Stress
4.Disease Process
5.Medical Therapy
An infant has immature defenses against infection. Born with only the antibodies provided by the mother, the infant's immune systme is incapable of producing thenecessary immunoglobulins and WBC's to adequately fight some infections.
Age Susceptibility
A reduction in the intake of protein and other nutrients such as carbohydrates and fats reduces the body's defenses against infection and impairs would healing.
Nutritional Status Susceptibility
Clients with diseases of the immune system are at particular risk for infection. Leukemia, AIDS, lymphoma, and aplastic anemia are conditions that compromise a host by weakening defenses against infectious organisms.
Disease Process Susceptibility
Some drugs and medical therapies compromise immunity to infection.
Medical Therapy Susceptibility
Where are localized infections most common?
In areas of skin or mucous membrane breakdown, such as surgical and traumatic wounds, pressure ulcers, and mouth lesions.
Infections that develop locally in cavities beneath the skin.
Abscess
What causes more generalized symptoms than local infection.
Systemic Infections
What symptoms usually result from systemic infections?
-Fever
-Fatigue
-Malaise
Lymph nodes that drain the area of a systemic infection usually become...
-Enlarged
-Swollen
-Tender during palpation
Describes a process that eliminates many or all microorganism, with the exception of bacterial spores, from inanimate objects. (Ex:chemical disinfectant or wet pasteurization)
Disinfection
Includes using an instant alcohol hand antiseptic before and after providing client care, washing with soap and water when hands are visibly soiled, and performing a surgical scrub
Hand Hygiene
A vigorous, brief rubbing together of all surfaces of the hands lathered in soap, followed by rinsing under a stream of water.
Hand Washing
Washing times of at least ? will remove most transient microorganisms from the skin. If hand visibly soiled, more time may required.
10 to 15 seconds
What is necessary to kill or inhibit microorganisms and reduce the level still further than just plain soap
Antiseptic agents
The use of ? is recommended by the CDC to improve hand hygiene practices, protect health care worker's hands, and reduce transmission
Alcohol-based waterless antiseptic
What have excellent germicidal activity and are more effective than either plain soap or antimicrobial soap and water.
Alcohols
When a client has a suspected or known infection, health care workers follow what...
Isolation Precautions
What includes the appropriate use of gowns, gloves, masks, eyewear, and other protective devices or clothing.
Isolation or Barrier Precautions
Precaution indicated for use with all clients...
Barrier Protection
An area free of microorganisms and prepared to recieve steril items
Sterile Field
Sterile technique requiring a nurse to use different precautions from those of medical asepsis, includes procedures used to eliminate all microorganisms, including pathogens and spores, from and object or area. Objects are considered contaminated if touched by an object that is not sterile.
Surgical Asepsis
7 Principles of Surgical Asepsis:
-A sterile object remains sterile only when touched by another steril object
-Only sterile objects may be placed on a sterile field.
-A steril object or field out of the range of vision or an object held below a person's waist is contaminated
-A steril object or field becomes contaminated by prolonged exposure to air.
-When sterile surface comes in contact with a wet, contaminated surface, the sterile object or field becomes contaminated by capillary action
-Fluid flows in the direction of gravity
-The edges of a steril field or container are considered to be contaminated (1 inch around is considered contaminated)