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27 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Physiological changes associated with aging:
-Activity & Rest
-Fluid & Electrolytes
Respiratory changes in aging:
-Respiratory muscle strength decreases
-AP diameter of thorax increases
-Decreased mobility of ribs/chest wasll stiffer
-Lung expansion decreases
-More likely to dev. pneum. after surgery
Cardiovascular changes in aging:
-Decreased contractile strenght of myocardium = decreased cardiac output
-Takes longer for heart rate to return to normal after exercise
-Systolic and/or diastolic hypertension
-Peripheral pulses weaker (extremities may cool quickly)
-Heart beat less efficiently, drugs are absorbed and distributed slowly
Nutrition changes in aging:
-Decreased activity levels means requires fewer calories
-Those who are very active or recovering may need additional calories
-Loss of calcium may result in bone loss, supplementation may be needed
Elimation changes in aging:
Hypertrophy of prostate(men)
Stress Incontinence (women)
Genito-urinary changes:
-Reduced renal filtration rate
-Slow restoration of acid-base balance
-Possiblity of urgency, frequency, and incontinence
Gastrointestinal System changes:
-Slowing of peristalsis
-Alteration in secretions
-Delayed gastric emptying
Altered liver function will affect ? of a drug.
Altered kidney function will affect ? of a drug.
Activity and Rest changes in aging:
-Total sleep time decreases until age 80, then increases slightly
-Time in bed increases after age 65
-Onset of sleep is lengthened (>30min)
-Naps are more common
-Sleep is subjectively and objectively lighter
-Frequency of abnormal breathing events is increased-
-Frequency of leg mvmts during sleep during sleep is increased
Process whereby the person's skin, hair, nails, and immune system function in such a manner as to help ensure body integrity and wholeness.
Protection changes in aging:
-Decreased protein/albumin levels may increase incidence of skin breakdown
-Falls-30% will fall at least once a year, 5% will obtain a fracture, 1% will be hip fractures. Of that 1%, 10% of all older people who obtain a hip fracture will die within one
-Sensory impairments contribute to protection
Senses changes in aging:
-Decreased visual accommadation, macular degeneration
-Decreased hearing ability
-Decreased taste
-Diminished smell
-Decreased pain perception
Fluid and Electrolyte changes in aging:
-Reduced # of functioning nephrons
-Decreased glomerular filtration rate
-Reduced blood flow
-Reduced renal clearance starts at age 30
-Due to delayed excretion, the elderly client is more likely to develop toxicity/accumulation
Neurological changes in aging:
- # of neurons begins to decrease after age of 25
-Older adults may experience decreased sense of balance or uncoordinated motor responses
-Sleep cycles are affected
Endocrine changes in aging:
-Narrower temperature ranges
-Deterioration in temperature control mechanisms-poor vasomotor control and reduced metabolism
-Basal Metabolic Rate may decrease as thyroid becomes less effective
A communication technique used to make the older adult more aware of time, place, and person
Reality Orientation
What are the main purposes for reality orientation?
-Restoring a sense of reality
-Improving level of awareness
-Promoting socialization
-Elevating independent functioning
-Minimizing confusion, disorietation, and physical regression
What may be the only symptom of a systemic infection in the elderly?
Changes in cognitive function
What are the 3 most common conditions affectin cognition in older adults:
Acute state, potentially reversible
Gradual, progressive, and irreversible
Experienced by >20% of older adults, potentially reversible
Process whereby a disabled person is helped to obtain optimal function.
What is the primary goal of rehabilitation?
To minimize the deficit from the condition and maximize the abilites that are intact
Symptoms during 3 Stages Alzheimer's Disease:
1.Early stage-memory loss
2.Mid stage-Confusion, loss of ability to recognize objects(agnosia)
3.End stage-Inability to think and communicate effectively, loss of ability to perform familiar tasks (apraxia), and loss of language skills (aphasia)
What are the 5 rights of delegation?
1.Right Task
2.Right Circumstances
3.Right Person
4.Right Direction/Communication
5.Right Supervision/Evaluation