Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/87

Click to flip

87 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is a physical change? Give one example.
a change in shape
What is a chemical change? Give one example.
a change that produces new substances EX: burning a twig
What is a physical property? Give one example.
can be observed with out changing what the object is made of EX: texture
What is a chemical property? Give one example.
can only be observed by causing a reaction/changing what the substance is made of EX: flammability
Which state of matter has a definite volume and definite shape?
solid
What is the process of changing a liquid to a solid?
freezing
Describe what happens to the molecules in water when it changes from a liquid to a gas.
molecules move faster and farther apart because energy (heat) was added to the liquid water
Describe what happens to the molecules in water when it changes from a liquid to a solid.
molecules move slower and closer together because energy (heat) was taken away
Define matter.
anything that has mass and takes up space
Define energy.
the ability to do work or cause change
Define energy conversion.
a change from one form of energy to another
State the Law of Conservation of Energy.
Energy cannot be created or destroyed; it can only change forms. The total amount of energy never changes
Describe the energy conversion that happens when you digest your food to regulate your body temperature.
Chemical energy in food is converted to thermal energy as heat.
Define kinetic energy.
the energy of motion
Whenever an energy conversion takes place some energy is always lost to __________ energy.
thermal (due to friction)
What type of energy is stored in a stretched rubber band?
elastic potential energy
Give 3 examples of fossil fuels.
coal ; oil ; natural gas
What are 2 energy conversions that take place in a battery-powered flashlight?
chemical energy (battery) to electrical energy; electrical energy to electromagnetic energy (light)
Are fossil fuels renewable or nonrenewable? Why?
nonrenewable – they take hundreds of millions of years to form
Give three examples of renewable resources.
solar ; hydroelectric (water) ; wind ; geothermal ; biomass
Describe the energy conversion that happens when you digest your food to regulate your body temperature.
Chemical energy in food is converted to thermal energy as heat.
Define kinetic energy.
the energy of motion
Whenever an energy conversion takes place some energy is always lost to __________ energy.
thermal (due to friction)
What type of energy is stored in a stretched rubber band?
elastic potential energy
Give 3 examples of fossil fuels.
coal ; oil ; natural gas
What are 2 energy conversions that take place in a battery-powered flashlight?
chemical energy (battery) to electrical energy; electrical energy to electromagnetic energy (light)
Are fossil fuels renewable or nonrenewable? Why?
nonrenewable – they take hundreds of millions of years to form
Give three examples of renewable resources.
solar ; hydroelectric (water) ; wind ; geothermal ; biomass
What is nuclear fusion?
two smaller nuclei are joined together to form one larger nucleus
What is nuclear fission?
the splitting of an atom’s nucleus into 2 smaller nuclei
What is one advantage of using solar energy?
solar energy will not run out for billions of years ; use does not cause pollution
What energy conversions take place in a hydroelectric power plant?
gravitational potential energy (in water behind the dam) to kinetic energy (flowing water) to electrical energy
What energy conversions take place in a wind power plant?
kinetic energy (moving air) to electrical energy
Define motion.
when the distance from another object is changing
How do you know when an object is in motion?
an object is in motion when its position changes compared to a reference point
Define reference point.
a place or object used for comparison to determine if an object is in motion; we assume that the reference point is standing still
What is the formula for speed?
speed = distance ÷ time
What is the speed of a monkey who goes 10 kilometers in 2 hours on his unicycle?
speed = distance ÷ time ; speed = 10 km ÷ 2 h ; speed = 5 km/h
When the speed of an object does not change then it is traveling at a ______________ speed.
constant
On a graph showing an object’s speed which variable would you label on the x-axis?
time
On a graph showing an object’s speed which variable would you label on the y-axis?
distance
On a motion graph (distance vs. time) what does a straight horizontal line represent?
object is not moving
On a motion graph (distance vs. time) what does a straight diagonal line represent?
constant speed
Define force.
a push or a pull on an object
What are balanced forces?
equal forces acting on an object that do not change its motion
What are unbalanced forces?
unequal forces that change the motion of an object
Define gravitational force.
the pull of very massive objects (Earth
Define friction.
pushes in the opposite direction of motion between 2 touching surfaces
Define contact force.
push between two objects that are touching
Define magnetic force.
a push or pull between magnetic objects
What are 2 characteristics of continental crust?
thick and less dense
What are 2 characteristics of oceanic crust?
thinner and more dense
What land formation will be created when two continental plates collide?
a mountain range
Define convergent boundary.
when 2 touching plates are moving toward each other
Define divergent boundary.
when 2 touching plates move away from each other
Define transform boundary.
when 2 touching plates slide past each other sideways
Define shearing and tell the type of fault it produces.
rocks pushed in 2 horizontal directions; strike slip faults
Define tension and tell the type of fault it produces.
rocks are pulled apart and stretched out in the middle; normal faults
Define compression and tell the type of fault it produces.
rocks are squeezed together; reverse faults
Describe the movement of land in a strike-slip fault.
hanging wall and foot wall slide horizontally past each other
Describe the movement of land in a normal fault.
hanging wall moves down so it is below the foot wall
Describe the movement of land in a reverse fault.
hanging wall moves up so it is above the foot wall
What is uplift?
the process by which parts of the crust are raised
Why does magma tend to flow upward through the crust?
magma is less dense than the surrounding crust
What is a batholith?
a large mass of rock formed when a huge body of magma cooled inside the crust
How are cinder cone volcanoes formed?
layers of ash and cinder pile up around the central vent
How are shield volcanoes formed?
thin layers of lava flow gradually
What is erosion?
the wearing away of land or soil
What is deposition?
sediment is deposited in a new location
Where do erosion and deposition occur along a meander in a river?
erosion occurs along the outside of the curve ; deposition occurs along the inside of the curve
List 3 characteristics of a youthful river.
steep slope; narrow straight channel; rapids and waterfalls
List 3 characteristics of a mature river.
slope not as steep ; fewer rapids and waterfalls ; many tributaries
List 3 characteristics of an old river.
low slope ; valleys ; flood plains ; many meanders
List 2 characteristics of a rejuvenated river.
steeper slope ; terraces
What is a delta?
a triangle-shaped landform created where a river empties into a larger body of water and deposits its sediment
What is a meander?
a looping curve in a river
Define streak.
color of the powdered mark a mineral makes
Define luster.
the way the mineral reflects light
Define cleavage.
mineral breaks along smooth even lines
Define fracture.
mineral breaks along rough jagged uneven lines
What are the 5 characteristics that all minerals share?
inorganic ; naturally occurring ; always a solid ; have a definite chemical composition ; the atoms must form a crystal pattern.
Define rock cycle.
the continual process where new rock forms from old rock material
Describe the processes a metamorphic rock must go through to become an igneous rock.
the metamorphic rock must be melted into magma ; then the magma must cool and harden into igneous rock
Describe the processes sediments must go through to become sedimentary rock.
the sediments must be compacted (squeezed) and cemented (glued) together to form sedimentary rock
Describe the processes an igneous rock must go through to become a metamorphic rock.
the igneous rock must experience extreme heat and pressure deep inside the crust to become a metamorphic rock
Define atmosphere.
layer of gases that surrounds Earth
List three ways that Earth’s atmosphere is important to living things.
atmosphere provides oxygen needed for animals to breathe ; traps heat from the sun to maintain a comfortable temperature ; protects earth from the sun’s radiation and meteoroids