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45 Cards in this Set

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What are the 7 clinical signs of cardiac disease?
1. Cough
2. Asymptomatic
3. Restrictive breathing
4. Fainting
5. Tiring
6. Weight loss
7. Lameness.

pg 175 Sudz
What are the 3 ddx of cardiogenic cough?
1. Left atrial enlargement
2. Pulonary artery enlargement
3. Pulmonary oedema
What are the 3 ddx of non cardiogenic cough?
1. Airway disease
2. Pulmonary fibrosis
3. Alveolitis
4. Neoplasia
what does a weak pulse indicate?Give examples of conditions associated with it?
Low HR ouput, increased peripheral resistance. Left ventricular failure (dilatative cardiomyopathy), Subaortic stenosis, shock,hypovolaemia.
what does a strong pulse indicate?Give examples of conditions associated with it?
High output states = hyperthyroidism, anemia, excitement, fever, sepsis, hypertension.
What are the ddx for cardiogenic dyspnea? 2.
1. Pulmonary edema (left heart failure)
2. Pleural effusion
What are the ddx for non cardiogenic dyspnea? 5
1. PUlmonary odema
2. Pleural effusion
3. Pneumothorax
4. Upper airway obstruction
5. Lower airway obstruction.
What does pulse deficits mean? Give 2 examples contributing two conditions.
Insuddicient time for ventricles to fill before contraction. Atril fibbrilation, ventricular premature contraction.
Name me 6 valvular disease.
1. Endocardiosis
2. Congenital oartic stenosis
3. Congenital pulmonic stenosis
4. Congenital AV valve dysplasia
5. Bacterial endocardiosis
6. AV valvular regurgitation due to cardeomegaly
Describe the location for PMI for heart valves.
LEFT P ^A^ M = 3 ^4^5
What does the lub S1 sound correlate to?
Closure of the AV valves ( start of the ventricular systole)
What does the lub S2 sound correlate to?
Closure of the semilunar valves ( aortic and pulmonic valves) strt of ventricular diastole.
When do you hear split S2 ?
Delayed closure of the semilunar valves most commonly with heartworm disease
What does gallop sounds mean? What disease do they indicate?
1. S3 S4 sounds ( early heart faillure)
What does stenosis mean?
obstruction of flow ( usually congenital )
Wht does regurgitation mean?
Incomplete closure of valve
What is murmurs the hallmark of? What does it mean to hear a murmur?
Valvular disease. It is due to to turbulent blood flow over valve
Give 6 examples of innocent / physiological murmurs.
1. Anaemia
2. Fever
3. Anxiety
4. Kittens and Puppies
5. Hypoproteinaemia
6. Athletic heart
What does a continous machenary murmur mean? Which side is it on?
1. Patent ductus arteriosus on the left sides. 1# congenital heart disease in the dog.
Describe what you would see with right atrial enlargement on the lateral view .
Elevation of trachea.
Describe what you would see with right atrial enlargement on the DV
9 - 11 oclock bulge
Describe what you would see with right ventricular enlargement on the left lateral view
- 6-9oclock bulging
- more sternal contact
-trachea and carina elevation
- apex elevation of sternum
Describe what you would see with right ventricular enlargement on the lateral view
- 6-9 oclock bulging
- more sternal contact
- trachea and carina elevation
- apex elevation off sternum
Describe what you would see with right ventricular enlargement on the DV
- 6- 9 oclock bulge ( reverse D)
- apex more to left
Describe what you would see with left atrial enlargement on the lateral view
- Elevated trachea and carina
- Separation of mainstem bronchi
Describe what you would see with left atrial enlargement on the DV
- 2 - 3oclock bulge (auricle )
- cowboy legs ( spread mainstem bronchi)
Describe what you would see with left ventricular enlargement on the lateral view
- 3 - 6oclock bulging
Describe what you would see with left ventricular enlargement on the DV
- Rounding 3- 5 oclock
- apex shifted to right
What evidence on the rads wold you find with enlarged aortic arch? Give 3 examples of disease processes.
LAT: elongated cardiac sillhoiuette, protrusion of cranial heart border ( 11-1 oclock)
DV: wodened aortic arch (11-1)

Causes: PDA, aortic stenosis, aortic aneutrism
What evidence on the rads wold you find with enlarged aortic arch? Give 4 examples of disease processes.
DV/VD = 1-2 oclock bulge

1. Pulmonic stenosis
2. Heartworm
3. PDA
4. Septal defects with left to right shunting
What is pulmonary oedema caused by ? Name two types.
Cause by congestive left heart failure .
1. Interstitial oedema = fluid in lung tissue. Vessels are fuzzy but evident

2. alveolar oedema - alveoli filled with fluid Air bronchograms. NO vasculature seen.
What will you see with hypovascularity?
MOre radiolucent lung fields.
PULMONARY ARTERIES SMALLER THAN VIENS
What are the causes of hypovascularity? 4
1. Right to left shunt
2. Pulmonic stenosis
3. Hypovolaemic shock ( small heart)
4. Adrenal insufficiency ( small heart)
What will you see with overcirculation ?
ARTERIES ARE LARGER THAN VIENS . MORE OPAQUE LUNGS .
What will you see with overcirculation ? What are the causes?
1. Heartworm
2. PDA
3. Left to right shunts
4. CHF
5. FLUID overload
What is pleural effusion caused by? Describe what you would see on the lat and DV views.
Right heart failure causes blood to back up into the plural space as well as the rest of the body.

LAT: Increase opacity to ventral thorax.
DV:
- retraction of lungs from the thoracic wall
- blunting of costophrenic angles
- widening of mediastinum
- scalloped appearance
- blurring / disappearance of cardiac shadow
What are the 5 cardiogenic causes of pleural effusions?
1. rt av valve regurgitation
2. Pulmonic stenosis
3. Heartworm
4. Pericardial effusion or pericarditis
5. Tetralogy of Fallot.
What does the p wave mean?
depolarisation of the atria
What does the P-R interval mean ?
Delay of impulse through AV node and bundle of His
What does the QRS colectively as a whole mean?
depolarisation of ventricles.
What does QRS individually mean ?
Q= depo of the septum
R= Depo of the left ventricles
S= Depo of the right ventricles
What does the ST segment meant?
interval of ventricular systole
What does the T wave mean?
Repolarisation of ventricles
Qhat is the Q-T interval ?
ventricular dep and repo
What are the 5 goals of heart failure management?
1. Maintain or increase CO
2. MInimise myocardial oxygen demand
3. Reduce activity and anxiety
4. Relieve fluid accumulation
5. COntrol rhythm disturbances.