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29 Cards in this Set

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What is the Cell Theory?
-All living things are composed of one or more cells
-Cells are the basic unit of life
-Cells are only produced from existing cells
What are the basic cell structures?
Cellmembrane, cytoplasm, nucleus, nuclear membrane, chloroplast, cell wall, mitochondria, vacuole, chromosomes, ribosomes, endoplasmic retiiculum, lysosomes, Golgi complex
Functions of cell membrane?
thin membrane that surrounds the cell and controls what enters and leaves the nucleus
Functions of cytoplasm?
jelly like material inside cell
What is the difference between organic and inorganic compounds?
Organic contains carbon, inorganic does not.
Funtion of nucleus?
organelle that contains DNA (stores genetic information)-- all cells except bacteria
Funtion of nuclear membrane?
thin membrane that surrounds the nucleus and controls what enters and leaves the nucleus -- all cells except bacteria
Funtion of chloroplast?
organeele that makes food from CO2 and H2O using light energy; process called photosynthesis; contains chlorophyll -- green plant and green protists
Funtion of cell wall?
"boX" around some cells; provides support -- plants, green protists, fungi, and bacteria
Funtion of mitochondria?
powerhouse of cell; site of cell respiration -- all cells except bacteria
Funtion of vacuole?
stores water, dissolved materials, and wastes; is very large in plant cells -- all cells except bacteria
Funtion of chromosomes?
long strands of DNA tha tstore genetic information; instructions for how to make proteins -- all cells
Funtion of ribosomes?
small organeels that make proteins -- all cells
Funtion of endoplasmic reticulum?
network of channels that transports molecules; may have ribosomes on outside -- all cells except bacteria
Funtion of lysosomes?
stores digestive enzymes; digests wastes -- all cells except bacteria
Funtion of Golgi complex?
stores, changes, and releases molecules -- all cells except bacteria
What are the main chemical elements of living organisms?
Carbon, Hydorgen, Nitrogen, Oxygen, Phosphorus, Sulfur
What are the 3 chemical bonds?
Coalent (2 atoms share electrons), Ionic (atoms complete outer edge by stealing or giving away electrons), Hydrogen (forms when molecules are linked together)
What are the subunits of macromoleclues?
Lipids, carbohydrates, nucleotides, protein
What is diffusion? Which way will solutes flow in solution and across membranes?
Diffusion: net movenment of the particles of a substance from where they are more concentrated to where they are less concentrated
-equilibrium: balance
-passive transport: diffusion across a membrane
-facilitated diffusion: transport proteins provide pathway for certain molecules
What is Osmosis? Which way will solutes flow in solution and across membranes?
Osmosis: passive transport of water across a selectively permeable membrane
-hypertonic: higher concentration of a solute
-hypotonic: lower concentration
-isotonic: equal
What is an enzyme? What is its role?
specialized protein that catalyzes the chemical reactions of a cell
What are the reactants and products of Cellular Respiration?
C6H12O6 (Glucose) + O2 (Oxygen)-> -> CO2 (Carbon dioxide)+ H2O (Water) + about 38 ATP
What are the reactants and products of Photosynthesis?
CO2 (Carbon dioxide) + H2O (Water)-> -> C6H12O6 (Glucose) + O2 (Oxygen)
What are the stages of Mitosis?
Interphase -> Prophase -> Metaphase -> Anaphase -> Telophase and Cytokinesis
What are the products of mitosis and meiosis?
Mitosis - two identical daughter cells (2 diploid cells)
Meiosis - 4 haploid cells
What were Mendel's experiments?
Mendel experimented in plan breeding -- cross-fertilization.
What is the difference between dominant and recessive?
Dominant: descriptive of an allele in a heterozygous that appears to be the only on affecting a trait
Recessive: descriptive of an allele in a heterozygous individual that does that appear to affect a trait
What is the difference between genotype and phenotype?
Phenotype: observable traits of an organism
Genotype: gentic makeup of an organis; an organis's combination of alleles