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66 Cards in this Set

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Fin de siecle
"End of the century" (Paris in the 1890s)
La belle epoque
"The beautiful time" (Paris in the 1890s)
Exposition Universelle, 1889
The world's fair.
Jean-Francois Millet, "The Gleaners", 1857
A realist painter.

Going through the field, picking grain. It's a painting of what women really did during that time.
Lithography
Drawing on stone, stone made wet, oil-based ink adheres to drawing but not to wet stone.

Toulouse-Lautrec was known foe his extensive use of lithography.

*revolutionized newspaper and magazine publication. Easily inked, lasted longer.
Impressionism (of paintings)
**Dramatic compositions, unusual points of view
- Everyday subjects
- Interest in the transient, moving objects, changing light effects
- Bright palette (high key colors)
- Color theory (reflected + blended colors)
- Painted "en plein-aire" (out-of-doors)
Japonism
The fascination for Japanese things. A trend for popularity of Japanese objects/things.
Ukiyo-e prints
Pictures of the "floating world"

Importance to European artists was in the Japanese aesthetic... how the Japanese artist filled the paper in an interesting way.
Jacques Offenbach, "Orpheus in the Underworld", 1858
A piece that goes with the Can Can.

Orpheus is the greatest musician in Greek mythology. Eurydice is his wife. Pluto is the lord of the underworld.

Orpheus goes to the underworld to retrieve his wife, but while getting out he looked back again (when he was told not to) and Eurydice slipped back into the underworld.
The Can-Can
The most popular dance.
1850-1870 --> a fashionable dance during this time.

From the Orheus in Underworld operreta that the song was developed.
Bourgeois
Social middle-class who sought mediocrity, respectability, and material possessions.
Proletariat
The lowest social and economic class laborers.
Bohemian
Artists and writers who lived an unconventional lifestyle.

They didn't care about material things (e.g. money). They stayed in bars, cafes, hung out.
Absinthe
An alcoholic beverage - very popular at the time, the drink of choice.

"The green fairy", "Cocktail hour", "The green hour".

- Made of wormwood (an herb).
- It had an hallucination effect.
- Very strong - 160% proof, bitter in taste
George Bernhard Shaw, "Pygmalion", 1914
Title comes from an accent Greek myth.

A play that has the same story line as My Fair Lady (the Broadway musical).
Professor Henry Higgins
Character that is able to tell people where they're from based on listening to their accents.
Colonel Pickering
From India, was looking for Prof. Higgins.
Eliza Doolittle
The flower girl who spoke improperly and was transformed into a lady by Prof. Higgins through months of training.
Mrs. Higgins
Prof. Higgin's mother
Freddy Eynsford Hill
Part of the upper-class snobby family (the husband). Fascinated by Eliza when they met at Mrs. Higgins house.
Primitivism
The process of imitating the art of so-called "primitive" cultures by modern artists.
Musee d'Ethnographie du Tracadero
France's national ethnographic museum in a complex called the Tracadero.
Picasso, "Les Demoiselles d'Avignon", 1907
"The ladies of Avignon"

Has primitism in painting. These ladies (prostitutes) are distorted.
Pablo Picasso
Picasso is considered the single most influential artist of the 20th century.

This is true in large part because of his invention of Cubism.
Amadeo Modigliani, "Head", 1912
Known for his elongated head and neck in his sculpture and painting.
Analytic Cubism
(Picasso's invention)

A style of painting resulting from the visual deconstruction of an observed object.

A process where the artist looks at subj, but thinks it's limited to look at subj from one point of view. Artist moves around subj and sees different views of the subj.
Georges Braque
Had very similar artwork as Picasso.
Collage
Picasso's invention.

The idea of pasting sheets of paper into the painting.
Synthetic Cubism
A style of painting that resembles the construction of an image from geometric shapes.

Geometric shapes that are put together to form subjects.
Analytic Cubism vs. Synthetic Cubsim
Analytic Cubism - start with obj, reconstructing object.

Synthetic Cubism - start with shapes, rearranging shapes to form subj.
Surrealism
Surrealism encouraged artists to develop their own personal mythology.

International, Interdisciplinary (literature, visual art, theatre) inspired by the study of psychology (Freud and the unconsious).

Deals with the human mind, thus lots of different shapes.

Put recognizable objects in contexts that aren't normal to us.
Andre Breton, "The First Manifesto of Surrealism", 1924
He defines surrealism.

Defined Surrealism as: Pure psychic automatism, by which one proposes to express the actual functioning of thought. Dictated by thoughts in the absence of any control exercised by reason, exempt from any aesthetic or moral concern.
Exquisite Corpse
The Exquisite Corpse drank all the grape wine. 4 artists drew without knowing that the other artist before them drew.
Joan Miro, "The Hunter", 1923-4
Joan is an artist who did surrealism and wrote about his painting process. A 2-step process: 1) draw without looking. 2) look to see what drawing can become. (lines look like a bird)
Salvador Dali, "Soft Construction with Boiled Beans (Premonitions of Civil War)", 1936
Salvador is known for taking recognizable objects and putting them in contexts that we are not used to seeing them in.
Salvador Dali and Luis Bunel, "Un Chien andalou", 1929
A classic surrealist film.

A random arrangement of scenes, depicting his own dream.
Picasso, "Minotaur", 1933
The Minotaur comes up frequently in Picasso's personal mythology.

His obsession with Minotaurs: He's Spanish (bull-fighting in the culture).
Pablo Picasso, "Guernica", 1937
An image of pain and brutality depicts the fascist bombing of the town Guernica in Spain.

(Was printed on a shirt from Chico's)
Pygmalion and Galatea
- Pygmalion was a sculptor who hated women.
- He created an ivory sculpture so beautiful that he fell in love with his own creation.
- He prayed to Venus and the sculpture came to life.
- He married her (Galatea).
Charles Darwin, "On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life", 1859
Survival of the fittest...if you're poor and die, so be it.

Some people twisted his views on biological to socialist view.
Exposition Internationale des arts et techniques dans la vie moderne, Paris, 1937
The World's Fair for Art + Technology of Modern Art.
The Spanish Civil War, 1936-39
- The Great Depression of 1930s
- The rise of Facism
~Adolph Hitler in Germany
~Benito Mussolini in Italy
- Spain became a republic in 1931
- Republican regime blamed for depression.
- 1936 election, a "Popular Front" was formed by all 3 parties.
- July 1936, army units led by General Franco
- Franco rebelled
- Spanish Civil war began
- Hitler and Mussolini sent aid to Franco
- Russia sent aid to Republicans, but not enough
- Neutrality Act" - cannot send supplies/aid in war.
- Fascist ignored.
- It lasted 3 years
- When Republic forces surrendered on March 28,1939 the world was distracted by other events.
- Half of Spain was in control by the Rebels.
The Spanish Republic (the loyalists)
Democracy... supported by Russia
The Spanish Nationalists (the rebels)
Facism... supported by Hitler and Mussolini.
Guernica
A small town that was bombed (provided by Hitler). There was no tactical/strategical reason for the bombing. They just wanted to make a statement.
Matador
In a bull fight, the guy on the ground with red flag

He does the final killing of the bull.
Picador
In a bull fight, the guy riding horse.
Museum of Modern Art, New York
1939-1981 the Guernica painting was here.

Picasso swore to not have the painting in Spain as long as Franco was in charge.
Reina Sofia (Spain's national museum of modern art), Madrid
Guernica painting was sent here after Franco died in 1981. (the painting is still here today)
Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, Au Moulin Rouge, 1895
Montmarte (where Lautrec moved to) was a nunnery that produced wine. It was a popular drinking area.
The place was also the highest point in Paris and because of which windmills were produced.

This is why the Moulin Rouge was built here.
Advantages of Lithography
- Was able to print a mass amount without wear n tear.
- image is quickly and easily drawn on the stone.
- Stone is quickly and easily inked.
- Image remains unchanged after many prints.
Au Moulin Rouge painting
The women in the painting are dancers.
The men have successful occupations.
Pablo Picasso, Guernica, 1937
A painting of the results of the Spanish Civil War (death, sorrow, anger, sadness)
Picasso, Portrait of Ambrose Vollard, 1910
example of analytic cubism
Picasso, The Three Musicians, 1921
example of synthetic cubism
Automatic writing
writing without thinking (ex: doodle while on the phone).
Gustave Eiffel, Le Tour Eiffel (the Eiffel Tower), 1889
Built for the World's Fair.
Realism
Looked at everyday subjects around them.
Honore Daumier, The Washerwoman, 1860
A realist painter
Claude Monet, Rouen Cathedra, 1894
Impressionist painting
Edgar Degas, Ballet Rehearsal, 1874-5
Impressionist painting
Auguste Renoir, Dance at the Moulin de la Galette, 1876
Impressionist painting
Louis Jacques Daguerre
Invented the daguerreotype
Daguerreotype
The first form of photography.

Invented by Jacques Lous Daguerre
Snapshot aesthetic
The Unattended cut-off of objects in photos.
The Fabian Society
Shaw was born into a lower-class family. He had sympathy for lower-class people and took a socialist view and help found the Fabian Society. (Socialist = believes the gov't should help/provide for poor people)