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15 Cards in this Set

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what is the difference between a stenohaline and an euryhaline?
stenohaline - narrow salt limits
euryhaline - broad range of salinities
Marines Invertebrates
most are isotonic with seawater, some are ionic regulators, excrete ammonium ions, osmoconformers
some marine invertebrates
have to deal with varying osmolarities, produce hypoosmotic urine, produce ammonium ions
Freshwater Animals
hypoosmotic urine, continuosly dilutes, produce ammonium ions as waste, never drink
Terrestrial Animals
continous water loss by evaporation, must drink to compensate, isoosmotic to hyperosmotic urine, urea nad uric acid are nitrogenous wastes
Marine Vertebrates
continous water loss, drink alot, pump ions out through gills, isoosmotic urine
Elasmobranches
allow UREA to build up in body until osmolarities are equal, pump ions out of rectal glands, UREA as nitrogenous wastes
anhydrobiosis
can tolerate great levels of dehydration, has the ability to clam up
Ammonia
Toxic, H2O soluble
UREA
less toxic, more tolerable,
Uric Acid
least toxic - can build up in body, used by terrestrial animals with eggs
puddling behavior in Gluphisia moths
males will drink 600x body mass in liquid and urinates just as much. does this to get salt. puts in reprodutive organs and passes to female.
Salt-Excreting Glands of Birds
marine seabirds - every meal covered in salt. have special glands that allow animal to take in excess salt and excrete throught nostril and out beak. salt pumps pump NaCl into lumen by countercurrent system. blood flows over secretory cells one way and NaCl is excreted the opposite way.
Organ of Excretion - 3 fundamental processes
1. Filtration
2. Reabsorption
3. Secretion
Organs of Excretion - examples
1. many marine vertebrates have none
2. contractile vacuoles
3.nephridial organs-prornephridia(flatworms)/metanephridia(earthworms)
4. malphigian tubules