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17 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
4 steps of digestion:
1. mastication/emulsification
2. dissolution - add liquid
3. acid effects - stomach
4. enzymatic degradation
Protein digestion
-endopeptidases - attack middle of a.a. chain
-exopeptideases - attack ends of a.a. chain
inactive form of an enzyme so that it won't attack the proteins in the body. (pepsinogen or pepsin??)
zymogen example
trypsinogen - has a 6 a.a. mask that is taken off in the presence of enterokinase. this converts trypsinogen to the active enzyme trypsin.
how many essential a.a. are there?
8 - these come from corn/grains AND bean/legumes .. vegeterians must eat from both of these
Carbohydrate digestion
amylopectin (1,6 and 1,4 glucosidic linkages), sucrose, and lactose
amylopectic digestion
-salivary amylase (1,4 glucosidic linkages)
-stomach -> stops
-pancreatic amylase (prefers 1,4)
sucrose and lactose digestion
small intestine
humans can't digest beta 1,4 glucosidic linkages
Lipid Digestion
-bile salts
-micelles - tiny fat cells that have been broken down by emulsification. they have a high SA:volume so they can be attached by lipase.
-Lipase breaks into monoglycerols, fatty acids, and chylomicrons.
move chylomicons to lymphatic vessels
What do the intestinal epithelial cells do to fat?
package into chylomicrons
Lipid Digestion (cont.)
Bile Salts -> fat globules to micelles
Pancreatic Lipase -> micelles to 2 fatty acid and 2mono-glycerols
HDL - good ->remove cholesterol
LDL - bad -> rich in cholesterol
VLDL - ugly -> carried to fat tissue
Absorptive State
meal to 4 hrs.
-main energy source: glucose
Postabsorptive State
only nervous system uses glucose -> for brain
-large quantities of protein in muc=scle if broken down to a.a. and sugars
liver breaks down a.a. to produce glucose
-biosynthesis of new glucose
glucose sparing
cells use fatty acids as fuel to spare glucose for brain
-reduction of glucose catabolism and increase fat utilization by the tissues