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83 Cards in this Set

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personality
stable pattern of behavior thoughts motives and emotions that characterizes an individual throughout life
trait
habitual way of behaving, thinking, and feeling
Early philosophers thought our personalities were a mix of what?
body fluids
What is the most famous personality inventory?
Myers-Briggs Type
Projective test
based on the assumption that the test taker will transfer unconscious conflicts and motives on an ambiguous stimulus
objective test
standardized questionnaires requiring written responses; they typicall include scales on which people are asked to rate themselves
factor analysis
a statistical method for analyizing the intercorrelations among various meansures or test scores; clusters of measures or scores that are highly correlated are assumed to measure the same underlying trait or ability
Raymod Catell's BIG FIVE
1. extroversion v. introversion
2. neuroticism v. emotional stability
3. agreeableness v. antagonism
4. conscientiousness v. impulsiveness
5. openness to experience v. resistance to new experience
temperaments
physiological dispositions to respond to the environment in certain ways; they are present in infancy and are assumed to be innate
Harris's beliefs on parents influence on children
shared environment of home has little influence; few parents raise children the same; little relation between how parents raise children and how they turn out
reciprocal determinism
in social cognitive theories, the two-way interaction between aspects of the environment and aspects of the individual in the shaping of personality traits
culture
a program of shared rules that govern the behavior of members of a community or society, and set of values, eliefs, and attitudes ahred by most members of that community
individualist cultures
the self is regarded as autonomous and individual goals and wishes are prized above duty adn relations with others
collectivist
cultures in which the self is regarded as embedded in relationships and harmony with one's group is prized above individual goals and wishes
monochronic cultures v. polychronics
cultures in which time is organized sequentiall, schedues and deadlines are valued over people.. time is orgnaized horizontally; people tend to do several things at once and value relationships over schedules
psychoanalysis
Freud thoeries of perosnality and emphasizes unconscious motives and conflits.
id
inherited psychic energy, particularly sexual and agressive instincts
libido
fuels the sexual instincts of the id
ego
persoanlity that represents reason, good sense, and rational self control
superego
repreesnets morality, social standars, conscience
defense mechanisms
mehtods used by the ego to prevent unconscious anxiety or threatening thoughts from entering
repression
occurs when a threatening idea, memory, or emotion is blocked from consciousness
projection
You're gay!
displacement
taking it out on the dog
reaction formation
Porno is gross
regression
sucking of thumb
denial
refusal to admit
stage #1
oral stage
2nd stage
anal stage messy or obsessive
oedibpus complex
occurs during the phallicstage, in wihch the parent of the other sx views the same-sex parent as a rival
3rd stage
latency stage nonsexual
genital stage
adult sexuality
jungian theory
collective unconcious: the universal memories and experiences of human kind, represented in the symbols, stories, and images that occur across all cultures(archetpyes)
archetypes
heor, earth mother, powerful father, wicked withc
Two of the most important archetypes
anima: feminine animus: masculine
Difference between Jung and Freud
Jung believed in forward thinking of human beings
object-relations school
psychodynamic approach that emphasizes the importance of the infant's first two years of life and the baby's formative relationships especially with the mother
humanist psychology
psychological approach that emphasizes personal growth, resilience, and the achievement of human potential
unconditional positive regard
according to carl rogers, love or support given to another with no conditions attached
Maslow
Self-actualization, physiological, safety, love, esteem, self-actualization
Identifying mental disorder
1. violation of cultural standards 2. maladaptive or harmful behavior 3. emotional distress
DSM
diagnositc and statistical manual of mental disorder
Problems with the DSM
1. overdiagnosis 2. power of diagnostic labels 3. confusion of serious mental disorders to normal problems 4.illusion of objectivity and universality
general anxiety disorder
a continuous state of anxiety marked by feelings of worry and dred, apprehension, difficulties in concentration, and signs of motor tension
posttraumatic stress disorder
anxiety disorder in which a person who has experienced a traumatic or life-threatening even has symptoms such as psychic numbing, reliving of the trauma, and increased physiological arousal
agoraphobia
a set of phobias, often set off by a panic attack, involvinv ght e basic fear of being away from a safe place or person
obsessigve compulsive disorder
anxiety disorder in which a person feels trapped in a repetitive persisten thoughts and repetitive ritualized behaviors designed to reduce anxiety
major depression
modd disorder involiving disturbances in emotion, behavior, congnition and loss of apetite
bipolar disorder
mania and depression occur
theories of depression
biological factors (significant shrinkage of the hippocampus and amygdala), life experiences (stress), problems with close attachemtns (separations or losses), cognitive habits (ways of thinking)
vulnerability-stress models
approaches that emphasize how individual vultnerabilities interact with external stresses or circumstances to produce mental disorders
personality disorder
rigid, maladaptive persoanlity pattersns that cuase perosnal distress or an inability to get along with others
narcissistic
a disorder characterized by and exaggerated sense of self-importance and self-absorbtion
borderline personality disorder
a disorder characterized by intense but unstable relationships, a fear of abandonment by others, an unrealistic self-image, and emotional volatility
antisocial personality disorder
disorder characterized by antisocial behavior such as lying, stealing, manipulating others, and sometimes violnece, and a lack of guilt, shame, and empathy
symptoms of apd
repeatedly break the law, deceitful, impuslive, fighting, reckless disregard for their own safety or to others, irresponsible, lack remorse or actions that harm others
causes of apd
abnormalities in CNS, geneticall influenced problems with impulse control, brain damage
addicition principles
vary according to cultural practice, policies of abstinence increase rates of addiction, not all addicts have withdrawal, not just on properties of drug alone but also the reasons for taking it
dissociative identity disorder
controversial disorder marked by the apparent disappearnce within one person of tow or more distinct personalities, each with its own name and trains; commonly known aas MPD
schizophrenia
psychotic disorder or group of disorders marked by positive symptoms (delusions, hallucinations) and negative symptoms (emotional flatness or loss of motivation)
psychosis
extreme mental disturbance involoving distorted percetptions and irraltional behavior; it may have psychological or organic causes
theories of schizophrenia
gnetic predispositions, structural brain abnormalities, neurotransmitter abnormalities, prenatal problems or birth comlications, adolescent abnormalities in brain development
antipsychotic drugs
drugs used in schizo... many unpleasant side effects
antidepressant drugs
drugs used primarily in the treatment of mood disorders especailly depression and anxiety
tranquilizer
drugs commonly but often inappropriately prescribed for patients who complain of unhapiness, anxiety, or worry. valium and xanax
lithium carbonate
given to people with bipolar disorder
caution about drug treatment
placebo effect, high relapse and drop out rates, dosage problems, long-term risks
psychosurgery
any surgical procedure that destroys selected areas of the brain believed to be involved in emotional disorders or disturbed behavior
electroconvulsive therapy
a procedure used in cases of prolonged and severe major depression, in which a brief brain seizure is induced
free association
in psycho analysis the process of saying freely whatever comes to mind in connection with dreams, memories, fantasies, or conflicts
transference
in psychodynamic therapies a critical process in which the client transfers unconscious emotions or reactions onto the therapist
behavior therapy
a form of therapy that applies principles and techniques of classical and operant conditioning to help people change self-defeating or problematic behaviors
systematic desnsitization
systematic desensitization is a step by step process of desensitizing a cliet to a feared object or experience
exposure (flooding)
in behavior therapy a method in wihc a person suffering from an anxiety disorder, such as a phobia, is taken directly into the feared situation until the anxiety subsides
behavioral records
in behavior therapy, a method of keeping careful data on the frequency and consequences of the behavior to be cahnged
skills training
in behavior therapy, an effort to teach the client skills that he or she may lack, as well as new, more constructive behaviors to replace self-defeating ones
cognitive therapy
a form of therapy designed to identify and change irrational, unproductive ways of thinking and hence to reduce negative emotions and their behavioral consequence; it is often combined with behavioral techniques
rational emotive behavior therapy
a form of cognitive therapy devised by robert ellis, designed to challenge the clients unrealistic or irrational thoughts
humanist therapy
a form of psychotherapy based on the philosophy of humanism, which starts from the assumption that people seek self-actualization and self-fulfillment; it emphasizes people's free will to change, not past conflicts
client-centered therapy
humanist approach to therapy devised by carl rogers, which emphasizes the therapists empathy with the client, the therapists ability to see the world as the client does and the use of uncondtional positive regard
exisistential therapy
a form of therapy designed to help clients epxlose the meaning of existence and face the great question of life such as death, free will, alienation, and loneliness
family systems perspective
an approach to doing therapy with individual or sfamilies by examining how each member forms part of a larger, interacting system
therapeutic alliance
the bond of confidence and mutual understanding established between therapist and lcient, which allows them to work together and solve the client's problems