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19 Cards in this Set

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What is the hydrosphere and what is its composition?
The hydrosphere is all of the water present on Earth. 97.25% of the Earth's water is in the oceans, 2.05% is captured in glaciers and the polar ice caps. Finally, only .7% of the Earth's water is found in the ground or in the atmosphere, in the form of fresh water.
Briefly explain the structure of the planet Earth from the core to the surface that we live on.
The inner core of Earth consists of mostly solid iron. Around that core is an outer core consisting of liquid iron. The mantle, a liquid of mush plastic-like rock exists around this outer core. Finally, floating atop this liquid like mantle is the Earth's crust, which is the solid surface that makes up the outer most part of the planet.
Name two ways that your body gets rid or excessive heat and briefly explain each.
Your body gets rid of excessive heat through radiation and perspiration. Radiation occurs by heat dissipation through tiny blood vessels close to the surface of your skin. Perspiration cools the body by evaporation of seat off the surface of the skin. This evaporation cools your body.
Compare and contrast hyperthermia and hypothermia, at what temperature does it occur and what are the consequences if a condition of hyperthermia gets too severe?
Hyperthermia is when our core body temperature rises to dangerours levels. Hyperthermia begins when the body temperature reaches 40 degrees Celsius at which time the temperature regulating mechanisms begin to breakdown. Once the temperature reaches 41 degrees Celsius or higher, brain cells begin to die and seizure, coma and even death can result.

Hypothermia is when the body's core temperature drops to dangerously low levels. When the core temperature reaches 32 degrees Celsius shivering nd tremors lead to accelerated and irregular heart beat. Finally, organs begin to shut down, brain damage occurs and death results if the core temp drops below 27 degrees Celsius.
What human characteristics demonstrate that we are adapted to a tropical climate? How were humans able to spread out and survive in non-tropical climates?
The fact that humans have very little hair, along with the face that we remove body heat very efficiently through sweating indicate that we are most well adapted for tropical environments. It was not until humans developed the usage of fire for heat and clothing for maintaining body heat in cold temperatures that humans were able to move out from tropical climates.
Explain the evidence for global warming seen in climate changes involving the Saharan dust storms and the North Atlantic Oscillation and how the implications of thses changes are worldwide.
Because of extreme drought in Africa, lakes such as Lake Chad have begun to shrink and provide extra same and dust to be blown into the atmosphere as a result of dust storms that are continuously increasing in intensity. As a result of global warming, the North Atlantic Oscillation, which is the air current that can carry dust and airborne particulate matter to the Americas across the Atlantic Ocean from Africa, has become more regular and more intense. Because of this, more and more dust and other debris are reaching the Americas from Africa. This is causing problems in the Caribbean because the spores of a fungus, known as Aspergillus, have been carried there from Africa. These spores are not only damaging coral reefs in the area byt also causing marked increase in the occurrence of asthma in children, demonstrating the far reaching and unexpected negative effects of global warming.
Elevation of the body core temperature to a dangerous and often fetal level is known as _____.
hyperthermia
The seasons on Earth are a result to the _____ of the axis.
tilt
The _____ is the portion of the Earth measured from the iron core, to the mantle.
lithosphere?
Even though Venus s twice as far from the sun than Mercury, its surface temperature is _____ than Mercury and is most likely the result of _____ _____ trapped in the atmosphere.
higher, carbon dioxide
The thin layer of air that has been captured and is maintained by Earth's gravity is known as the _____.
atmosphere
The Earth's _____ contains all of the water on the planet, of which the vast majority is in the form of _____.
hydropshere, oceans
The amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere on Earth is maintained by the _____, which absorbs it through photosynthesis but produces it as a result of respiration.
biosphere
The _____ greenhouse effect is most associated with human actions stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and which may be causing changes in Earth's climate.
anthropogenic
Earth's seasons are due to the _____ tilt of it's axis in relation to the sun.
23.5
The _____ extends from the crust to the upper most layer of the mantle.
lithosphere
The hydrosphere consists of all the _____ found on Earth.
water
The ocean accounts for _____ of Earth's water.
97.25%
The atmosphere of Earth consists of _____ nitrogen and 21% _____.
78%, oxygen