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107 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
AML-age it peaks
Preschoolers 3-5yrs
ALL-age it peaks
Hodgkin Lymphoma age
Adolescents-rare under 5yrs
Non-hodgkins lymphoma age
Brain Tumor age
Under 4 years, infants-Embryonic cells
Osteogenic sarcoma age
10yrs to adolescents
Ewing Sarcoma age
school age to adolescents
Wilms tumor (nephroblastoma) age
6mths-5yrs, very young
Rhabdomyosarcoma age
2-6 yrs and again in puberty
Retinoblastoma age
1-2 years infant to young child
Fever, pallor, lethargy, anorexia
Sx's of Leukemia
Enlarged lymphnodes
Hodgkin/nonhodgink symptoms
Symptoms a chid would have with Neuroblastoma
High Blood Pressure, Perspiration, abdominal mass in the VERY YOUNG CHILD/INFANT
Shoulder pain, hip/back pain, in tall youth growth spurts
Osteogenic sarcoma symptoms
Symptoms of Ewing's Sarcoma
School-age to adolescent kids will complain of sports injuries or knee/arm pain
Nephroblastoma Symptoms
Mass at Kidney-in infants and young, some hematuria, HTN, or abdominal pain
Rhabdomyosarcoma presents as
growth in teh head or back of the neck
Retinoblastoma presents as
Cat's eye reflex
Definition of Epidemiology
Distribution and determinants of health-related states or events in specified population and applying this study to control of health problems
Purpose of the study of epidemiology
Monitor health popn, understand causal factors, execute interventisns and prevent occorences and maintain health
Distribution Definition
Pattern of health events in populations-when we look who what how where, why something happens
Proportion Definition and example
The expression of one part ot the whole within the same time frame. # of peeps w/ issue/all peeps w/o issue gives you..... 12 have disease/16 who do and do not =75% ______ who have disease
Ratio definition and example
Expression of part to part within the same time frame. Peeps w/ issue/peeps w/o...3males to 1female have disease
Rate Defintion and example
Measures how rapidly something is happening or going to happen. Similar to proportion but w/in period of time
Mortality definition
Provides information for fatal diseases but doesn't provide direct information about the level of existing disease or the risk of getting a particular disease.
Mortality is measured by
Rates: sex/age/race, cause specific or age-adjusted, or crude death rate
Morbidity definition
Rate of the number of cases of a particular disease occuring in a single year per population whit? provides level of disease, rate and risk of disease as well
Example of Morbidity
Flu-measured by incidence and prevalence
Incidence rate definition
Measure of new cases of a disease (in a population at risk during a specified period of time)
Incidence rate example
50 women at risk for breast cancer. 5 women get breast cancer. 5/50 X 100,000 = 10,000 per 100,000.
Prevalence rate definition
Measure of existing disease in a populatoin at a particular time
Prevalence rate example
50 women screened for breast cancer, 5 previously diagnosed, 10 develop over 5 years. 15/50 X 100,000= 30,000 per 100,000
Risk definition
Probabilty that an event will occur within a specified time period
____ of getting flu during flu season
Organisms capable of causing disease
Agent Examples
chemicals, radiation, pesticides, fungi, parasites, bacteria, viruses
Population at risk of developing the disease
Host Example
has a genetic susceptibility such as age or sex
combination of physical, biological, and social factors that surround and invludence both agent and host
Environment examples
climate, pollution, dirty water, changes in the elements that put a person at increased or decreased risk
Web of causality
Combination of things that cause stuff...interrelationships of numerous factors interacting to increase or decrease the risk of disase.
Web of causality example of Heart Disease
Diet, cholesterol, CHD, diabetes, angina, heredity, sex, smoking all are examples
Descriptive Epidemiology
Tells the distribution of disease, death and other health outcomes in the population according to who, where, and when
Searches for the determinants orf the patterns observed-how and why
Descriptive components
Person (race, age, occupation), place (geographical), time (increase or decrease in frequency of disease over period of time)
What causes it to happen in that population "Why is flu more prevalent in winter months?People indoors more, breathing others air
Environmental health definitoin
means freedom from illness or injury related to exposure to toxic agents nd other environmnetal conditions that are potentially detrimental to human health
Five things Nightingale identified for optimal environment
clean air, water, cleanliness, sewage/drainage, adequate lighting
Sense of place is influenced by
promoting good health through the use of windows, plants, waterfalls
What contributes to deteriorating air quality
Dusts, molds, cleaning products, car pollution
More suspetible b/c of small mass. And enviormental risks such as too much sunscreen-they get rickets
Basic science that studies health effects associated with chemical exposures
Risk Assessment
Used by the EPA to deterine probabilty of a health threat associated with an exposure
Role of the nurse in environmental health
Investigate through assessing environment
Educate about hazards
ADvocate through policies
Mercury as a healthcare industry threat
Fish from acid rain
Dioxin as a healthcare threat
Burning plastic
Socialized study of the PROCESS of growing old
Prejudice of old people
Study of DISEASES in old age
Challenges with the elderly and sx's are
less predictable
more sublte
often not reported
Successful aging
Decreased disease
Increased functioning
increased engagement with life
Characteristics of aging process
Cumulative-happens with stuff we do to ourselves
Irreversable-not going to change
Universal-happens to all
Assymetrical rate of change-lifestyle determines rate
5 I's and 3 D's tht adversly affect aging process
Intellectual impairment
Iotrogenic drug reaction
Chronic impairment affecting persons ability to function socially. Mental deteriorations
Briefly/Abruptly disoriented or confused related to medication toxicity or others
sad feelings of gloom/inadequacy
Entry and multiplicity of agent into susceptible host
Presence of disease in area or population
HIV/AIDS and Epidemic
gatherinig who what whenre when of agent to control and confine
Removing disease from large geographic area
Eliminating an disease-ie/smallpox was __________
Food borne diseases
Salmanellosis, hep A, trichinosis
Bacteria can be killed w/ proper cooking. 12 hr. to several days incubation, pt. needs medical tx
stable with cooking, minutes to hours of ingestion, supportive care needed
Salmanellosis from animal or feces of infected
E.Coli From hamberger or people
Bloody diarrhea, abd. cramps
Vector Borne Disease
Lyme disease (tick), Rocky mountain spotted fever (tick)
Rocky Mt. Spotted Fever
Flu-like Sx's and rash on extremities fist
Presence of antibody.
Negative Results of EIA
Absence of HIV
PID is a complication of
Standard Home health practice
Outcome education
West-Nile virus is a
Vector-borne disease
Gonorrhea has increased...
antibiotic resistant strains
Syphillis should be eliminated becasue
eliminates likely HIV transmission and compramised ability to have health babies
HPV is
Genital warts-use cryotherapy to eliminate lesions.
Hep A is transmitted
Fecal-orally, waterborne
Hep B
Blood and body
Hep C
blood and body
Disaster Mitigation
Actoins/measures that prevent/reduce the occurance/severity of prepare for next flood
Program Manegement
Assessing, planning, implementing and evaluating a program
Selecting and carrying out series of actions to achieve stated goals
Goal of planning is to ensure health services are acceptable, equal, efficient, and effective
Determining wether a service is needed an dcan be used, did it help
Formative/Process Evaluation
Are objectives met
Were planned activities completed
Summative/Impact Evaluation
Evaluation to assess program outcomes
Follow up of the results of progrm activities
Refers to whter car that was given is good or competent
Audits and reviewing records
Refers to reults of client care and restoration
morbidity, mortality, disability
Tracer Method
Health status/care can be evaluated by viewing specific health problems
Ie/middle ear infectionsd associated w/ hearing loss
Case REgister
Systematic registration of contagious disease
ie/ TB register indicates controlledness
Cost accounting
actual cost of program
Cost Benefit
Dollar amount placed on benefits and costs
Cost Effectiveness
Quality of program as it relates to cost
Cost Efficiency
Cost of performing number of program services