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116 Cards in this Set

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film core
A plastic hub used to hold film without a reel. There are 2 inch cores (small cores) and 3 inch cores (large cores). 2 inch cores can also be called camera cores.
film gate
The opening on a camera or a projector just behind the lens, through which a single frame is exposed (in the camera) or projected (in the projector).
Aperture
Like the iris of the eye, a valve within a lens to control the amount of light that passes through. Opening the iris permits more light to pass through the lens and closing the iris less. The degree to which the iris is open or closed is measured in F-Stops, and on some lenses supplemented by T-Stops.
Shutter
In photography, a shutter is a device that allows light to pass for a determined period of time, for the purpose of exposing photographic film or a light-sensitive electronic sensor to the right amount of light to create a permanent image of a view.`
Claw
The pulldown claw is part of the camera movement, which advances the film from the exposed frame to the next unexposed frame while the camera’s shutter is closed.
Lens
A photographic lens (also known as objective lens or photographic objective) is an optical lens or assembly of lenses used in conjunction with a camera body and mechanism to make images of objects either on photographic film or on other media capable of storing an image chemically or electronically.
Lens Mount
A lens mount is an interface —mechanical and often also electrical —between a photographic camera body and a lens. It is confined to cameras where the body allows interchangeable lenses, most usually the single lens reflex type or any movie camera of 16 mm or higher gauge.
Pressure Plate
Part of the internal workings of a camera, the pressure plate is located on the other side of the film from the gate. It is a smooth, spring-loaded plate that holds the film on the film plane and acts as a brake, helping to hold the film steady while it is exposed.
Aperture Plate
A small part of a piece of perforated ferromagnetic material that forms a magnetic cell.
(Orientable) Viewfinder
In photography a viewfinder is what the photographer looks through to compose, and in many cases to focus, the picture.
Reflex Viewfinder
A viewfinding system in a camera where the image you see in the viewfinder is viewed through the same lens that is used to photograph the image on film.
Mirrored Shutter System
The mirror, either part of teh shutter itself or rotating in synchronization with it, alternately allows all the light to hit the film, and then, when the shutter is closed,all the light to go to the viewfinder.
Beam Splitter System
A partially reflecting mirror or a prism with a partially reflecting mirror in the light path diverts some of the light to the viewfinder, letting the balace hit the film.
Diopter Adjustment
The diopter is part of the viewfinding system of a camera that can be adjusted to compensate for your own particular eyesight, allowing you to see the groundglass clearly.
Eyepiece
The lens or lens group closest to the eye in an optical instrument; an ocular. Also called eyeglass.
Film Chamber
The cavity inside a camera in which film is housed.
Motor
Most cameras today have electric motors powered primarily by rechargeable batteries.
Spring Wound
Wound by hand prior to shot. Their chief disadvantage is that they run out of power after about a 30 second shot.
Flare
This has two meanings: 1.: When using film on a daylight spool, the erratic pattern of raw light that washes out the beginning and end of the roll are known as “the flares.” 2.: A flare of the other kind is a Lens Flare. It is caused when light strikes the lens and either causes the entire image to be fogged in appearance, or for a little row of polygons (the silhouette of the iris) to appear from the light hitting the surfaces of the many elements in the lens. It is solved by flagging the lens.
Flash Frame
A flash frame is a single frame that is completely clear between two shots. It occurs when the camera is stopped with the gate open, allowing for a very long exposure on that single frame. Rather than a problem, a flash frame can actually be a very helpful thing in the editing room, making it very easy to see where one shot ends and another begins. This type of flash frame usually does not occur with spring wound cameras, like the Bolex, except when the spring winds all the way down, but the second type is something with which to be more concerned. 2.: A flash frame is also used to describe the first few overexposed, brighter frames at the beginning or the end of a shot, due to the camera needing time to reach speed. These can often be hard to see while editing, but are much more noticeable in a final print.
Crystal Sync
Specifically, a way of recording Sync Sound where the camera runs at correct speed with a quartz crystal-governed motor, and tape recorder records its pilottone using a built-in quartz crystal pilottone generator. The crystal is much like the kind used in a quartz watch. Unlike cable sync, the camera and tape recorder are not attached.
Exposure Time
Exposure is determined by the intensity of light that passes through the lens and the time each frame is exposed to the light.
Variable Shutter
On cameras with a variable shutter, the shutter angle can be narrowed to change the shutter speed.
Standard Speed
24fps
Slow Motion
Speed camera up or slow down playback.
Fast Motion/Undercranking
When film is shot at slower than normal speed, each frame is exposed for a greater length of time.
Time Lapse
With Significantly lower speeds, time is proportionally sped up.
Animation
A variant of time lapse photography. A series of paper drawings or paintings on acetate are done with slight chnages between the images.
Aaton
Aaton was founded by Eclair engineer Jean-Pierre Beauviala, whose efforts have been primarily focused on making quiet, portable motion picture hardware suitable for impromptu field use, as for documentaries. A theoretical model for all motion picture cameras they have produced is the "cat-on-the-shoulder," a small, light, quiet motion picture camera.
Arriflex
The 435 cameras are specifically designed as MOS cameras, which means that they are conventionally considered to be too loud to record usable location sound.
Bolex
One of the more widely used 16mm non-sync cameras, it is made in Switzerland by the Paillard Company. There are many varieties, non-reflex, reflex, springwound and electric motor driven. But when someone says “Bolex,” typically they mean a reflex, springwound model, such as the Rex-4.
Variable Speed Motor
Some cameras are not intended for sync sound work. Sometimes called MOS or wild cameras, nonsync cameras have variable speed motors or governor motors. Small, light, noisy.
Regristration
The degree to which one frame lines up with the next is registration. A camera with poor registration will create an image that will gently bobble when projected. Projectors too can have good or poor registration (sometimes making it difficult to tell if it was the camera). Good registration is most important for certain types of special effects shots where images are layered and will call attention to themselves if they are gently bobbling out of sync with each other.
Fluid Heads
Have built in hydraulic dampening device to make panning much easier.
Focal Plane
A plane perpendicular to the axis of an optical system and passing through the focal point of the system.
Zoom Lens
A variable focal length lens. A zoom lens will have a third ring, besides ones controlling focus and iris, that will allow you to change the focal length within a range of wide to long.
Prime Lenses
A prime lens is one with a single focal length, wide, normal or telephoto, as opposed to a Zoom Lens, which has a variable focal length. They often come in a set of different focal lengths. Prime lenses tend to be sharper, faster and will often focus closer than zoom lenses.
Fast Lenses
In photography, a fast lens is a photographic lens with a wide maximum aperture (small f-number), meaning that it allows a large amount of light through the lens, as compared to other lenses.
Slow Lenses
A lens with a relatively narrow maximum aperture -ƒ/8, for example.
Focal Length
The distance from the surface of a lens or mirror to its focal point. Also called focal distance, focus.
Wide angle lens
A lens with a focal length smaller than 25mm in 16mm, or 50mm in 35mm, which, like looking into the wrong end of a pair of binoculars, provides an extended view of a large area.
Standard Lens
In 16mm this is the 25mm lens. In 35mm it is the 50mm lens. It is the point between the widening of the image by the wide angle lens and the magnifiying of the image by the telephoto lens.
Telephoto Lens
Used as an equivalent to Long Lens, but for those who wish to be overly exact, a telephoto lens is a long lens that is physically shorter than its focal length.
F-stop
The scale used to measure the size of the opening of the iris on a lens. Opening the iris wider lets in more light, and closing it down, smaller, lets in less light. F-stops can be a little confusing, because the larger the number, the smaller the opening of the iris, and conversely the smaller the number, the larger the opening. The typical f-stop scale is 1.4 - 2 - 2.8 - 4 - 5.6 - 8 - 11 - 16 - 22. When the reading is between stops, this should be accounted for it setting the lens, however, it is much more clear, even if it sounds grammatically incorrect to the mathematically inclined, to say “One third above 5.6” rather than “5.8” because it is very hard to judge the distance in decimals between numbers like 5.6 and 8, whereas 1/3rd above 5.6 is perfectly clear.
Iris Diaphragm
Like the iris of the eye, a valve within a lens to control the amount of light that passes through. Opening the iris permits more light to pass through the lens and closing the iris less. The degree to which the iris is open or closed is measured in F-Stops, and on some lenses supplemented by T-Stops.
Opening Up
When a lens ring is turned toward lower numbers and teh iris opens.
Stopping Down
When the ring is turned towards higher numbers.
T-Stop
Similar to an F-Stop, some lenses, particularly zoom lenses, will have f-stops on one side of the aperture ring and t-stops on the other. To differentiate the two, the t-stops will be red and the f-stops white. T-stops are used in place of f-stops for setting exposure. Lenses with a lot of glass elements will often lose a little bit of light. The t-stops are calibrated to the actual amount of light that is hitting the film, rather than arrived at mathematically, as is the case with f-stops. However, the f-stops are still relevant, because while the t-stop should be used to set the exposure, the resulting f-stop will indicate how much Depth of Field you have.
Depth of Field
While a lens focuses on a single plane of depth, there is usually an additional area in focus behind and in front of that plane. This is depth of field. Depth of field increases as the iris is closed. There is more depth of field the wider the lens and less the longer the lens. There is a deeper area in focus the further away a lens is focused than there is when a lens is focused close. Depth of field does not spread out evenly; the entire area is about 1/3rd in front and 2/3rds behind the plane of focus. To factor together all these variables it is best to consult a depth of field table, such as the ones found in the American Cinematographer’s Manual.
Circle of Confusion
Any point that is nearer or farther from the camera than the plane of critical focus registers as a circle on film instead of a point.
Sharpness
How clear the image can be.
Incident light
The direct light that falls on a surface.
Reflective Light
A reflective light reading measures the amount of light bouncing off the subject. You take a reflective reading with a light meter equipped with a honey-comb or lensed grid. The meter is pointed at the subject, so as to read only the light bouncing off the subject. The other type of light reading is an Incident Light Reading.
Key Light
The key light is the first and usually most important light that a photographer or cinematographer will use in a lighting setup. The purpose of the key light is to highlight the form and dimension of the subject.
Fill Light
In television, film, stage, or photographic lighting, fill light is used to reduce the contrast of a scene and to provide some illumination for the areas of the image that are in shadow. Most lighting setups will place the fill light at a 90° angle to the key light (in relation to the subject).
Backlight
A type of spotlight, used in photography, that illuminates a subject from behind.
Flood/Spot
A wider more diffuse less intense beam of light/the opposite is spot.
Head/Instrument
Lighting Fixture
Lighting Contrast
The relationship in light intensity between the brightly lit and shadow areas.
Tungsten/Quartz/Halogen
Tungsten filament encased in a quartz glass bulb filled with halogen gas. 3200 color temperature.
Soft Light
Scoop shaped fixture that blocks all direct light
Flags
Cut off unwanted spill
T-Stop
Similar to an F-Stop, some lenses, particularly zoom lenses, will have f-stops on one side of the aperture ring and t-stops on the other. To differentiate the two, the t-stops will be red and the f-stops white. T-stops are used in place of f-stops for setting exposure. Lenses with a lot of glass elements will often lose a little bit of light. The t-stops are calibrated to the actual amount of light that is hitting the film, rather than arrived at mathematically, as is the case with f-stops. However, the f-stops are still relevant, because while the t-stop should be used to set the exposure, the resulting f-stop will indicate how much Depth of Field you have.
Depth of Field
While a lens focuses on a single plane of depth, there is usually an additional area in focus behind and in front of that plane. This is depth of field. Depth of field increases as the iris is closed. There is more depth of field the wider the lens and less the longer the lens. There is a deeper area in focus the further away a lens is focused than there is when a lens is focused close. Depth of field does not spread out evenly; the entire area is about 1/3rd in front and 2/3rds behind the plane of focus. To factor together all these variables it is best to consult a depth of field table, such as the ones found in the American Cinematographer’s Manual.
Circle of Confusion
Any point that is nearer or farther from the camera than the plane of critical focus registers as a circle on film instead of a point.
Sharpness
How clear the image can be.
Incident light
The direct light that falls on a surface.
Reflective Light
A reflective light reading measures the amount of light bouncing off the subject. You take a reflective reading with a light meter equipped with a honey-comb or lensed grid. The meter is pointed at the subject, so as to read only the light bouncing off the subject. The other type of light reading is an Incident Light Reading.
Key Light
The key light is the first and usually most important light that a photographer or cinematographer will use in a lighting setup. The purpose of the key light is to highlight the form and dimension of the subject.
Fill Light
In television, film, stage, or photographic lighting, fill light is used to reduce the contrast of a scene and to provide some illumination for the areas of the image that are in shadow. Most lighting setups will place the fill light at a 90° angle to the key light (in relation to the subject).
Backlight
A type of spotlight, used in photography, that illuminates a subject from behind.
Flood/Spot
A wider more diffuse less intense beam of light/the opposite is spot.
Head/Instrument
Lighting Fixture
Lighting Contrast
The relationship in light intensity between the brightly lit and shadow areas.
Tungsten/Quartz/Halogen
Tungsten filament encased in a quartz glass bulb filled with halogen gas. 3200 color temperature.
Soft Light
Scoop shaped fixture that blocks all direct light
Flags
Cut off unwanted spill
T-Stop
Similar to an F-Stop, some lenses, particularly zoom lenses, will have f-stops on one side of the aperture ring and t-stops on the other. To differentiate the two, the t-stops will be red and the f-stops white. T-stops are used in place of f-stops for setting exposure. Lenses with a lot of glass elements will often lose a little bit of light. The t-stops are calibrated to the actual amount of light that is hitting the film, rather than arrived at mathematically, as is the case with f-stops. However, the f-stops are still relevant, because while the t-stop should be used to set the exposure, the resulting f-stop will indicate how much Depth of Field you have.
Depth of Field
While a lens focuses on a single plane of depth, there is usually an additional area in focus behind and in front of that plane. This is depth of field. Depth of field increases as the iris is closed. There is more depth of field the wider the lens and less the longer the lens. There is a deeper area in focus the further away a lens is focused than there is when a lens is focused close. Depth of field does not spread out evenly; the entire area is about 1/3rd in front and 2/3rds behind the plane of focus. To factor together all these variables it is best to consult a depth of field table, such as the ones found in the American Cinematographer’s Manual.
Circle of Confusion
Any point that is nearer or farther from the camera than the plane of critical focus registers as a circle on film instead of a point.
Sharpness
How clear the image can be.
Incident light
The direct light that falls on a surface.
Reflective Light
A reflective light reading measures the amount of light bouncing off the subject. You take a reflective reading with a light meter equipped with a honey-comb or lensed grid. The meter is pointed at the subject, so as to read only the light bouncing off the subject. The other type of light reading is an Incident Light Reading.
Key Light
The key light is the first and usually most important light that a photographer or cinematographer will use in a lighting setup. The purpose of the key light is to highlight the form and dimension of the subject.
Fill Light
In television, film, stage, or photographic lighting, fill light is used to reduce the contrast of a scene and to provide some illumination for the areas of the image that are in shadow. Most lighting setups will place the fill light at a 90° angle to the key light (in relation to the subject).
Backlight
A type of spotlight, used in photography, that illuminates a subject from behind.
Flood/Spot
A wider more diffuse less intense beam of light/the opposite is spot.
Head/Instrument
Lighting Fixture
Lighting Contrast
The relationship in light intensity between the brightly lit and shadow areas.
Tungsten/Quartz/Halogen
Tungsten filament encased in a quartz glass bulb filled with halogen gas. 3200 color temperature.
Soft Light
Scoop shaped fixture that blocks all direct light
Flags
Cut off unwanted spill
Scrim
circular wire mesh screens that can be placed in front of a lighting unit, don't change color temp or quality (hardness)
Silk
White silk material mounted on frames like nets; they cut down on the light while diffusing it somewhat.
Day for Night
Shooting night scenes during the day.
Equalization
Balancing various parts of the audible spectrum.
Signal to Noise
The ratio of the amplitude of a desired signal at any point to the amplitude of noise signals at that same point; often expressed in decibels; the peak value is usually used for pulse noise, while the root-mean-square (rms) value is used for random noise.
Nagra
Nagra-brand tape recorders were the de-facto standard sound recording systems for motion picture and single-camera television production until the 1990s.
DAT
Digital audio tape recorder
Demagnetizer
Exposing tape to powerful, alternating magnetic field.
Pilot Tone
A 60 Hz reference signal recorded onto the audio tape to allow transfer to mag precisely at sound speed, used for Sync Sound filming.
Timecode
A number assigned to every frame of video and sound for later reference.
Condenser Mic
Expensive, high quality, delicate
Dynamic Mic
cheap and rugged
Omnidirectional
Equal response to sound from any direction
Cardioid
Focus on sounds from front.
Super-Cardioid/Shotgun
Extremely focused on forward sounds
Lavalier
Lapel Mic
Wireless
Sans Wires
Microphone Mixer
Allows control and balance of multiple mic inputs.
Sound Report
Log of each take noting the length problems and whether a good or bad take.
VU meter (volume unit)
Guide for setting recording level.
Angle Reverse Angle
When one person is looking left and the other right during a convo.
Cut Away
A shot seperate from the main action.
Continuity Script
Continuity script serves as a reminder of what coverage needs to be gotten and tells the editor what shots have to be taken.
Camera Report
Indicates every take on a given roll of film, including length of the shot and remarks.