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191 Cards in this Set

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____ are weak bonds that are not strong enough to hold atoms together to form molecules but are strong enough to form bridges between molecules.
hydrogen bonds
Water molecules stick to other water molecules because...?
hydrogen bonds form between the hydrogen atoms of one water molecule and the oxygen atoms of other water molecules
Why can a glass be filled with water to the point where some of the water is above the rim of the glass, yet the water does not overflow the glass?
Water molecules exhibit cohesion
A solute is..?
the substance that is dissolved in a solution
A solution with a pH of 7 is...?
neutral
Household ammonia has a pH of 12; household bleach has a pH of 13. Which of the following statements is/are true?


a) bothe of these substances are strong acids
b) the ammonia has 10 times as many H+ ions as the bleach
c) a solution that could buffer the bleach and ammonia would remove excess OH- ions
d) the ammonia has 10 times as many OH- ions as the bleach
e) both b and d are true
b) the ammonia has 10 times as many H+ ions as the bleach
In the equation 2H(sub)2 = O(sub)2 --> 2H(sub)2O, the H(sub)2 molecules are ___ and the H(sub)2O molecules are ___.
reactants...products
Which of the following is not a characteristic of chemical reactions?

a) chemical reactions involve the making and breaking of chemical bonds
b)the atoms of the reactants are exactly the same as the atoms of the products
c) some chemical reactions create electrons; others destroy them
d) the reactants contain the same number of atoms as the products
e) although the atoms of a reaction's reactants and products are identical to each other, their molecular formulae differ.
c) some chemical reactions create electrons; others destroy them
Oxygen has an atomic njumber of 8. Therefore it must have:

a) 8 protons
b) 8 electrons
c) 8 neutrons
d) only a & b are correct
e) a, b, and c are correct
d) only a & b are correct
what do atoms form when they share electron pairs?
molecules
what do atoms form when they share electron pairs?
molecules
Atomic Mass : 12
Atomic Number: 6
Element: Carbon


How many electrons does carbon have in its outermost ( valence) energy level?
4
How many electrons would be expected in the outer energy level of an atom with the atomic number 17?
7
If atom with an atomic number of 6 were allowed to react with hydrogen, the molecule formed would be..?
H
|
H-X-H
|
H
Life is organized in a hierarchial fashion. Which of the following sequences illustrates that hierarchy as it increases in complexity?
molecule, cell, tissue, organ, organ system, organism, population, community, ecosystem
The tree in your backyard is home to two cardinals, a colony of ants, a wasp's nest, two squirrels, and millions of bacteria. Together, all these organisms are
an ecosystem
Which of the following is/are properties of life?


a) the ability to take in energy and use it
b) the abitity to reproduce
c) a complex orginization
d) the ability to respond
e) all of the above
e) all of the above
the ultimate source of energy flowing into nearly all ecosystems is..
sunlight
which of the following statements is/are true?


a) global warming is related to the destruction of forests
b) ecosystems interact; thus it is possible for events occurring in tropical rain foreses to influence North America weather patterns
c) understanding carbon and water cycling is an important aid in the understanding of global climate patterns
d)CO2 emission is an important contributor to global warming
e) all of the above
e) all of the above
photosynthesis is dependent on...?
light
matter...

a) is composed of elements
b) occupies space
c) has mass
d) is what life is composed of
e) all of the above
e) all of the above
a solution with a pH of 7 is...?
neutral
the role of a control experiment is to...?
provide a basis of comparison with the experimental
a hypothesis is..?
a tenative explanation for a specific phenomenon
characteristics of carbon that contribute to its ability to form an immense diversity of organic molecules include its...

a) abitity to bond with up to four other atoms
b) tendency to form covalent bonds
c) capacity to form single and double bonds
d) ability to bond together to form extensive, branched, or unbranches "carbon skeletons"
e) all of the above
e) all of the above
hydrocarbons...
contain only carbon and hydrogen atoms
propanol and isopropanol are isomers. this means they have...
the same molecular formula but different chemical properties
organic compounds...

a) always contain nitrogen
b) can only be synthesized in a laboratory
c) always contain carbon
d) are synthesized by cells
e) both c & d
e) both c and d
you now know that the old cliche "oil and water dont mix" is true because...
water exhibits polarity and oil does not
an -OH group...


a) is found in all sugar molecules
b) makes a sugar a ketone
c) is also called a carbonly group
d) makes a protein an aldehyde
e) none of the above
e) none of the above
which of the following is an amino group?

a) -COOH
b) -CO
c) -NH(sub)2
d) -OH
e) -CH(sub)3
c) -NH(sub)2
which of the following statements is/are true of the monomers and polymers found in living organisms?


a) all of the polymers found in all orgaisms are identical
b) all types of organisms use app. the same set of monomers to form their polymers
c) each type of organism has its own polymers, some of which are diff. from those found in other organisms
d)each type of organism has a unique set of monomers used to form its polymers
e)both b&c are true
e) both b&c are true
the results of dehydration synthesis can be reversed by...? (2)
a hydrolysis reaction and/or digestion
characteristics of carbon that contribute to its ability to form and immense diversity of organic molecules include its:

a) capacity to from single and double bonds
b) ability to bond together to form extensive, branched, or unbranched "carbon skeletons"
c) ability to bond with up to four other atoms
d)tendency to form covalent bonds
e) all of the above
e) all of the above
hydrocarbons..
contain only hydrogen and carbon
propanol and isopropanol are isomers. this means that they have...?
the same molecular formula but different chemical properties
organic compounds...

a) can only be synthesized in a laboratory
b) always contain nitrogen
c) always contain carbon
d) are synthesized by cells
e) c&d
e) c&d
you now know that the old cliche "oil and water dont mix" is true. Why?
water exhibits polarity and oil does not
an -OH group...
is found in all sugar molecules
which of the following statements is/are true of the monomers and polymers found in living organisms?


a) all of the polymers found in all organisms are identical
b) all types of organisms use app. the same set of monomers to form their polymers
c) each type of organism has its own polymers, some of which are different from those found in other organisms
d) each type of organism has a unique set of monomers used to for its polymers
e) b & c
e) b & c
Monosaccharides can be joined by a process called dehydration synthesis. Which of the following statements is/are true of this process?


a) one monomer loses a hydrogen atom, the other loses a hydroxyl group
b)H2O is formed as the monomers are joined
c) covalent bonds are formed between the monomers
d) electrons are shared between atoms of the joined monomers
e) all of the above
e) all of the above
the results of dehydration synthesis can be reversed by... (2)
a hydrolysis reaction and digestion
which list below consists of only molecules that are polymers?

a) sugars, amino acids, nucleic acids, lipids
b) proteins, lipids, nucleic acids, polysaccharides
c) proteins, lipids, nucleic acids, sugars
e) polysaccharides, lipids, amino acids, nucleic acids
b) proteins, lipids, nucleic acids, polysaccharides
the molecular formula of most monosaccharides represents a mtpl. of...
CH2O
a molecule with the formula
C{55}H{110}O{55} is probably a(n)...
polysaccharide
sucrose is formed..
from two monosaccharides by a dehydration synthesis
glycogen...

a) is a polysaccharide
b) is a carbohydrate
c) contains C, H, and O atoms
d) conatins glucose molecules
e) all of the above
e) all of the above
which of the following is NOT a polysaccharide?


a) unbranched starch molecules
b) glycogen
c) cellulose
d) branched starch molecules
e) sucrose
e) sucrose
foods that are high in fiber are most likely to be derived from...?
plants
one way to convert an oil into a substance that is solid at room temperature is to...?
add hydrogens, decreasing the number of double bonds in the molecules
in salad dressings, oil quickly separates from vinegar because oils are...?
nonpolar
enzymes...

a)function as organic catalysts
b) regulate chemical reactions in a cell
c) have structures that correspond to their function
d) are proteins
e) all of the above
e) all of the above
proteins differ from one another because..?
the sequence of amino acids in the polypeptide chain differs from protein to protein
amino acids can be distinguished from one another by..?
the chemical properties of their R groups
glucose molecules are to starch as ___ are to proteins.
amino acids
peptide bonds...
link amino acids
the ___ structure of a protein cnosists of a chain of amino acids assembled in a specific order.
primary
which of the following is an example of secondary structure in a protein?


a) a particular amino acid sequence
b) an alpha helix
c) a globular shape
d) a pleated sheet
e) both b and d
e) both b and d
nucleotides..

a) contain phosphate groups
b) contain nitrogenous bases
c) contain sugar molecules
d) can be linked together to form a double helix
e) all of the above
e) all of the above
genetiv information is encoded in the...?
sequence of nucleotides in DNA
Which of the following choices does not properly pair an organic compound with one if its building blocks?


a) protein -- amino acid
b) fat -- fatty acid
c) nucleic acid -- glycerol
d) polysaccharide -- monosaccharide
c) nucleic acid -- glycerol
the area of a cell between the nucleus and the plasma membrane is called...?
cytoplasm
a cellular structure with a specific function is called a(n)...?
organelle
light microscopes...
use glass lenses to magnify an image into the viewers eye
which of the following statements woulbe be true of the surface-to-volume ration of a cell that double in value?


a) the ration much decrease, or the cell will lose too many biomolecules through its membrane
b) the ration must increase if the cell is to continue obtaining enough nutrients and gases
c) the ration must stay the same so that the balance of transport materials into and out of the cell with not be disturbed
d) the ratio must decrease if the cell is to contiune obtaining enough nutrients and gases
e) both a and b
d) the ratio must decrease if the cell is to contiune obtaining enough nutrients and gases
the nuclieiod region of a prokaryotic cell...?
contains the cells DNA
you are told that the cells on a microscope slide are plant, animal, or bacterial. you look at them through a microscope and see cell walls and membrane-bound organelles. you conclude that the cells..?
are plant cells
the nucleus of a cell...?
contains DNA
long fibers of DNA and protein are called (a)
chromatin
during cell reproduction, chromatin coils up into structures called...?
chromosomes
the function of the nucleolus is..?
to manufacture ribosomes
the area of a cell between the nucleus and the plasma membrane is called...?
cytoplasm
a cellular structure with a specific function is called a(n)?
organelle
resolving power is..?
the measure of an image's clarity
light microscopes...?
use glass lenses to magnify an image and project the image into the viewers eye
which of the following is NOT found in procaryotic cells?


a) ribosomes
b) a capsule
c) a nucleus
d) pili
e) a cell wall
e) a cell wall
the nucleiod region of a prokaryotic...?
contains the cell's DNA
cells that lack a menbrane-bound nucleus are ___ cells
prokaryotic
you are told that the cells on a microscope slide are plant, animal, or bacterial. you look at them through a microscope and see cell walls and membrane bound organelles. You conclude that the cells:...?
are plant cells
the nucleus of a cell..?
contains DNA
long fibers of DNA and protein are called (a)?
chromatin
during cellreproduction, chromatin coils up into structures called...?
chromosomes
rough endoplasmic reticulum...?
is covered with ribosomes
the golgi apparatus...?
stores proteins, modifies proteins, and packages proteins
lysosomes:


a) can destroy harmful bacteria engulfed by white blood cells
b) help to digest worn-out or damages organelles
c) recycle materials within the cell
d) fuse with food vacuoles to expose nutients to hydrolytic enzymes
e) all of the above
e) all of the above
mtrochondria differ from chloroplasts in that...?
mitochondria contain membrane folds called cristae, whereas chloroplasts contain dislike vesicles in stacks called grana
the function of the chloroplasts is...?
photosynthesis
the function of mitochondria is...?
cellular respiration
which of the following is NOT a true statement about plant cell walls?


a) plant cell walls protect plant cells by forming an impermeable layer around the cell
b) wood is primarily composed of plant cell walls
c) plant cell walls consist of cellulose fivers embedded in a matrix of polysaccharides and proteins
d) the cell wall of one plant cell is separated from the cell wall of another by a layer of sticky polysaccharides
e) plant cell walls are multilayered structures
a) plant cell walls protect plant cells by forming an impermeable layer around the cell
all cells on earth:


a) have dna as the genetic material
b) are enclosed in a membrane that maintains internal conditions different from the surroundings
c) can interconvert chemical materials
d) can interconvert forms of energy
e) all of the above
e) all of the above
organelles that contain DNA include (2)
mitochondria, chloroplasts
the plasma membrans is a feature of ____ cells.
all
ribosomes are structures that feature ____ cells.
all
golgi bodies are structures found in ____ cells only.
eukaryotic
lysosome help to...?
recycle the cell's organic material
the site of cellular respiation is...?
mitochondria
Which of the following can affect the rate of an enzyme-catalyzed reaction?


a) pH
b) competitive inhibitors
c) noncompetitive inhibitors
d) temperature
e) all of the above
e) all of the above
what is an example of a coenzyme?
vitamin B6
membrane phospholipids:


a) have hydrophilic tails that face outward and are exposed to water
b) remain fluid because they are tightly packed agains one another
c) often have "kinks" in heir tails caused by the presence of a single rather than a double bond between carbons
d) have hydrophobic heads that face the center of the membrane and are shielded from water
d) none of the above
d) none of the above
which of the following substanced would have the most trouble crossing a biological membrane by diffusing through the lipid bilayer?


a) H2O
b) CO2
c) O2
d) a small, nonpolar molecule such as bitane (C4H10)
e) Na+
e) Na+
the fluid mosaic model describes the plasma membrane as consisting of...?
a phospholipid bilayer with embedded proteins
which of the following is not a true statement about diffusion?


a) it occurs when particles spread from areas where they are less concentrated to areas where they are more concentrated
b) it requires no input of energy into the system
c) it is driven by entropy
d) it is a result of the kinetic energy of atoms and molecules
e) it proceeds until equilubruim is reached
a) it occurs when particles spread from areas where they are less concentrated to areas where they are more concentrated
diffusion does not require the cell to expent ATP. therfore, diffusion is considered a type of: ..?
passive transport
when two aqueous solutions that differ in solute concentration are placed on either side of a semipermeable membrane, and osmosis is allowed to take place, the water will...?
exhibit a net movement to the side with lower water concentration
in lab, you use a special balloon that is permeable to water but NOT sucrose to make an "artificial cell". The balloon is filled with a solution of 20% sucrose and 80% water and is immersed in a beaker containing a solution of 40% sucrose and 60% water. What will occur?
water will leave the balloon
a cell that neither gains nor loses water when it is immersed in a solution is...?
isotonic to its enviornment
according to ___, energy cannot be created or destroyed.
the first law of thermodynamics
living systems:

a) violate the second law of thermodynamics
b) decrease their entropy while increasing the entropy of the universe
c) violate the first law of thermodynamics
d) both a and b
e) all of the above
b) decrease their entropy while increasing the entropy of the universe
which of the following processes is endergonic?

a) the release of the heat from the breakdown of glucose
b) cellular respiration
c) the synthesis of glucose from carbon dioxide and water
d) the breakdown of glucose to power ATP formation
e) the burning of wood
c) the synthesis of glucose from carbon dioxide and water
what is the basie difference between exergonic and endergonic reactions?
exergonic reactions release enerfy; endergonic reactions absorb it
anything that prevents ATP formations will
result in cell death
ATP can be used as the cell's energy currency because: (2)...?
endergonic reactions can be fueled by coupling them witht he hydrolysis of high-energy phosphate bonds in ATP

and

the regeneration of ATP and ADP can be fueled by coupling it with exergonic reactions
an energy barrier..?
is equivalent to the energy of activation of a reaction
most of a cell's enzymes are...?
proteins
when an enzyme catalyzes a reaction, it...?
lowers the activation energy of the reaction
the active site of an enzyme is...?
the region of an enzyme that attatches to a substrate
enzymes:

a) function depends on its three-dimensional shape
b) are not specific
c) are used up in chemical reactions
d) emergy unchanged from the reactions they catalyze
e) both a and d
e) both a and d
a child is brought to the hospital with a fever of 107F. doctors immediatly order and ice bath to lower the child's temperature. why?
elevated body temperatures may denature enzymes. this would interfere with the cell's abilities to catalyze various reactions
heating inactivated enzymes by...?
breaking the hydrogen bonds that give the molecule its three-dimensional shape
plasma membranes are selectively permeable. this means that...?
the plasma membrane regulates the passage of material into and out of the cell
which of the following is NOT a function of the plasma membrane?


a) it is the control center of the cell
b) it is involved in self-recognition
c) it forms a selective barrier around the cell
d) it plays a role in signal transduction
e) it has receptors for chemical messages
a) it is the control center of the cell
membrane phospholipids:


a) have hydrophilic tails that face outward and are exposed to water
b) have hydrophobic heads that face the center of the membrane and are sheilded from water
c) remain fluid because they are tightly packed against one another
d) ofter have "kinks" in their tails caused by the presence of a single rather than a double bond between carbons
e) none of the above
e) none of the above
what would have the most trouble crossing a biological membrand by diffusing through the lipid bilayer?
Na+
the fluid mosaic model describes the membrane as consistinf of:..?
a phospholipid bilayer with embedded proteins
which of the following is not a true statement about diffusion?


a) it requires no input of energy into the system
b) it proceeds until equilibrum is reached
c) it is driven by entropy
d) it occurs when particles spread from the aread where they are less concentrated to areas where they are more concetrated
e) it is a result of the kinetic energy of atoms and molecules
d) it occurs when particles spread from areas where they are less concentrated to areas where they are more concentrated
diffusion does not require the cell to expend ATP. therefore, diffusion is consedered a type of...?
passive transport
when two aqueous solutions differ in solute concentration are placed on either side of a semipermpable membrane, and osmosis is allowed to take place, the water will..?
exhibit a net movement to the side whith the lover water concentration
in lab you use a special balloon that is permeable to water but not sucrose to make an "artificial cell." the balloon is filled with a solution of 20% sucrose and 80%% water and is immersed in a beaker containing a solution of 40% sucrose and 60% water. the solution in the balloon is ___ relative to the solution in the beaker.
hypotonic
a cell that neither gains nor loses water when it is immersed in a solution is...?
isotonic to its enviornment
osmosis can be defined as...?
the diffusion of water
you are adrift in the atlantic ocean and being thirsty drink the surrounding seawater. as a result, you...?
dehydrate yourself
the molecules responsible for membrane transpot are...?
proteins
which of the following processes could result in the net movement of a substance into a cell, if the substance is more concentrated in the cell than in the surroundings?



a) active transport
b) osmosis
c) facilitated transport
d) diffusion
e) either a or c
a) active transport
active transport:

a) can move solutes up a concentration gradient
b) can involve the coupled passage of solutes
c) requires the cell to expend energy
d) uses ATP as an energy source
e) all of the above
e) all of the above
the ultimate source of nearly all energy available to life on earth is...?
sunlight
what is a defference between sexual and asexual reproduction?
sexual reproduction is more likely to increase gnetic variation than is asexual reproduction
when a eukaryotic cell is not dividing, its genetic material can be found in the form of very long thin fibers referred to as:...?
chromatin
the diploid chromosome compliment of a human somatic cell consists of how many chromosomes?
46
eukaryotic cells spend most of their cell cycle in which phase?
interphase
the phase of mitosis during which the nuclear envelope fragments and the nucleoli disappear is...?
prophase
during which phase of mitosis do the chromosomes line up on a plain located equidistant from the two spindle poles?
metaphase
which of the following occurs during mitotic anaphase?


a) sister chromatids separate
b) daughter chromosomes begin to move toward opposite poles of the cell
c) the chromatid of DNA replicated
the centromeres of each chromosome divide
e) a, b, and d
e) a, b, and d
during which phase of mitosis does the nuclear envelope re-form and the nucleoli reappear?
telophase
what is a feature of plant cell division that distinguishes it from animal cell division?
a cell plate forms
if the haploid number for a species is 3, each dividing diploid cell with have how many chromatids at metaphase?
12
The science of heredity is referred to as...?
genetics
which of the following researchers discovered fundamental principles of gnetics by breeding garden peas?
mendel
a monohybrid cross is...?
a breeding experiment in which the parental varieties differ in only one trait
when a gene for a given trait comes in alternative versions that specify different forms of the trais, the versions of the gene are called...?
alleles
an organism with two different alleles for a single trait is said to be...?
heterozygous
the expressed or physical traits of an organism are referred to as...?
phenotype
the genetic makeup of an organism constituted its...?
genotype
an allele that is fully expresses is referred to as...?
dominant
what is a testcross?
a mating between an individual of unknown genotype and an individual homozygous recessive for the trait of interest
an allele that has no noticeable effect on the appearance of an organism unless it is found in a homozygous condition is said to be...?
recessive
the science of heredity is referred to as..?
genetics
biologists of the early 19th century believed...?
hereditary materials contributed by the male and female parents blend to from the offspring
who discovered fundamental principles of genetics by breeding garden peas?
mendel
a monohybrid cross is...?
a breeding experiment in which the parental varieties differ in only one trait
when a gene for a given trait comes in alternative versions that specify different forms of the trait, the versions of the gene are called...?
alleles
an organism with two different alleles for a single trait are said to be...?
heterozygous
biologists of the early 19th century believed...?
hereditary materials contributed by the male and female parents blend to from the offspring
who discovered fundamental principles of genetics by breeding garden peas?
mendel
a monohybrid cross is...?
a breeding experiment in which the parental varieties differ in only one trait
when a gene for a given trait comes in alternative versions that specify different forms of the trait, the versions of the gene are called...?
alleles
an organism with two different alleles for a single trait are said to be...?
heterozygous
biologists of the early 19th century believed...?
hereditary materials contributed by the male and female parents blend to from the offspring
who discovered fundamental principles of genetics by breeding garden peas?
mendel
a monohybrid cross is...?
a breeding experiment in which the parental varieties differ in only one trait
when a gene for a given trait comes in alternative versions that specify different forms of the trait, the versions of the gene are called...?
alleles
an organism with two different alleles for a single trait are said to be...?
heterozygous
the expressed or physical traits of an organism are referred to as its...?
phenotype
the genetic makeup of an organism constitutes its...?
genotype
an allele that is fully expressed is referred to as...?
dominant
an allele that has no noticeable effect on the appearance of an organism unless it is found in a homozygous contidition is said to be...?
recessive
alleles of a gene are found at ________ chromosomes.
the same locus on homologous
mendel's principle of independent assortment states that...?
each pair of alleles segregates independently during gamete formation
what is a testcross..?
mating between an individual of an unknown genotype and an individual homozygous recessive for the trait of interest
assuming that the probability of having a female child is 50% and the probability of having a male is also what is the probability that a couple's first born child is female and a second born is male?
25% {xx, xy.. y = 25%}
dr. smiths parents have normal hearing, however, dr smith has an inherited form of deafness. deafness is a recessive trait that is associated with the abnormal allele d. the normal allele at this locus, associated with normal hearing, is D. dr smiths parents could have a genotype of what..?
Dd and Dd
imagine that beak color in a finch species is controlled by a single gene. you mate a finch homozygous for orange beak with a finch homozygous for ivory beak and get numerous offspring, all of which have a pale, ivory-orange beak. the pattern of color expression is more likely to be an example of..?
incomplete dominance
persons who are heterozygous for sickle-cell disease are also...?
resistant to malaria
genes located close together on the same chromosomes are referred to as ___ genes and generally ___.
linked... do not sort independently during meiosis
what is the normal complement of sex chromosomes in a human male?
XY
how many sex chromosomes are in a human gamete?
one
why are sex linked conditions more common in men than in women?


a) men acquire two copies of the defective gene during fertilization
b) men need inherit only one copy of the recessive allele for the condition to be fully expresses
c) women must inherit two copies of the recessive ene for the condition to be fully expressed
d) the sex chromosomes are more active in men than in women
e) both b and c
e) both b and c
what is a genetic cross called between an indivitual of unknown genotype and homozygous recessive?
a testcross
in crossing a homozygous recessive with a heterozygote, what is the chance of getting an offspring with the homozygous recessive phenotype?
0%
in snapdragons, heterozygotes have pink flowers, whereas the two homozygotes have red flowers or white flowers. when plants with red flowers are crossed with plants with white flowers, what proportion of the offspring will have pink flowers?
100%
what is an example of polygenic inheritance?
skin pigmentation in humans
how many unique gametes could be produced through independent assortment by an individual with the genotype AaBbBBDdEE?
8