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22 Cards in this Set

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Compare the sizes of prokaryotes to eukaryotes
Prokaryote: 1- 10μ
Eukaryote: 10 - 100μ
In which type of cell is the nuclear envelope present?
Present in eukaryotes
Compare chromosomes in prokaryotes and eukaryotes
Prokaryotes: single, circular
Eukaryotes: multiple, linear
Compare the method of cell division in prokaryotes and eukaryotes
Prokaryotes: simple fission
Eukaryotes: Mitosis/Meiosis
Compare internal membranes in prokaryotes and eukaryotes
Prokaryotes: Rare
Eukaryotes: Complex
Compare ribosomes in prokaryotes and eukaryotes
Prokaryotes: 70S
Eukaryotes: 80S

S = Svedberg - a measure of size based on the rate of precipitation on centrifugation
Compare the cytoskeleton in prokaryotes and eukaryotes
Prokaryotes: Absent (nearly)
Eukaryotes: Microtubules, microfilaments, etc.
What is a cytoskeleton?
The cytoskeleton (also CSK) is a cellular "scaffolding" or "skeleton" contained within the cytoplasm and is made out of protein. It is a dynamic structure that maintains cell shape, protects the cell, enables cellular motion (using structures such as flagella, cilia and lamellipodia), and plays important roles in both intracellular transport (the movement of vesicles and organelles, for example) and cellular division.
What are the three main kinds of cytoskeletal filaments?
Microfilaments, intermediate filaments, and microtubules (enhance both structural integrity, cell shape, and cell and organelle motility)
What are the major organelles of eukaryotic cells?
Nucleus, ER, Golgi apparatus, endosomes, mitochondria, lysosomes, vacuoles and granules, peroxisomes
What is the main function of the nucleus?
DNA and RNA synthesis

1/cell (NOTE: Polynuclear cells do occur - e.g. skeletal muscle)
What is the main function of the ER?
Production of membranes, synthesis of proteins for export

1/cell
What is the main function of the Golgi apparatus?
Processing of proteins for export

1-3/cell
What is the main function of endosomes?
Endocytosis

200/cell
What is the main function of the mitochondria?
Synthesis of ATP

100-2000/cell
What is the main function of the lysosomes?
Hydrolysis of macromolecules and ingested organisms and particles

300/cell
What is the main function of vacuoles and granules?
Storage, including compounds for export

Variable/cell
What is the main function of peroxisomes?
Oxidative reactions generating H₂O₂ and enzymes for its removal
What is a peroxisome?
Removes harmful peroxides from the body, generating H₂O₂ (looks like a vesicle)

They participate in the metabolism of fatty acids and many other metabolites. Peroxisomes harbour enzymes that rid the cell of toxic peroxides. Peroxisomes are bound by a single membrane that separates their contents from the cytosol (the internal fluid of the cell)
What is a peroxide?
A peroxide is a compound containing the peroxide anion (O₂²⁻) or an oxygen-oxygen single bond
What is the 'catabolic pathway'?

Cat, destroyed dominoes on D3PO
A type of metabolic pathway whereby large, complex molecules are broken down into smaller ones in order to release energy
What is the 'anabolic pathway'?
A series of chemical reactions that constructs or synthesizes molecules from smaller units, usually requiring input of energy (ATP)