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33 Cards in this Set

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What is the external anatomy?
Head, neck, trunk (thorax, abdomen)
Pinnae
Snout w/ vibrissae
Mammae
Umbilicus: allantoic duct, umbilical vein & 2 umbilical arteries
Sex organs:
Femal Pig: genital papilla
Male Pig: scrotum
Identify the regions of the body:
Head
Neck
Trunk
Tail
Head = cranial region
Neck = cervical region
Trunk = thoracic region
Tail = caudal region & abdominal region
Located on the head, what is the:
Pinnae (auricle)
mammae
Pinnae = external ear
mammae = An organ of female mammals that contains milk-producing glands; a mammary gland
Identify the regions of the trunk:
Dorsal
Ventral surfaces
Vertebral Column
Vertebral column = thoracic (rib), lumbar (lower back), sacral (pelvic) vertebrae
Ventrally, abdominal region dominates the area posterior to the thorax
Identify a xs of the umbilicus:
Name all three sections and their functions?
Allantoic dust: channels urine to the allantois, an extra embryonic sac
Umbilical vein: a single LARGE vein, carries oxygenated blood from placenta to fetus
Umbilical arteries: 2 arteries, carry deoxygenated blood from fetus to placenta
How do you determine the sex of a pig?
Female pigs: genital papilla
Male pigs: scrotum
Determining the sex of you pig:
Female: look for a single urogenital opening just ventral to the anus. A prominent genital papilla projects fronm the urogenital opening
Male: look for the scrotum, a sac like swelling containing the testes and located ventral to the anus. The male urogenital opening is faintly visible just posterior to the umbilicus.
NOTE that males as well as female have multiple nipples = teats = mammary papillae
what type of locomotion do pigs have?
Pig have a reduced # of toes, the middle digits form hooves.
They have UNGULIGRADE LOCOMATION, meaning they walk on the tips of their digits
Identify:
digitigrade
plantigrade
unguligrade
digitigrade = walking on the balls of your feet
plantigrade = using the entire foot
Unguligrade = walking on the tips of the digits
Pig digestive system consists of:
the alimentary canal (mouth, oral cavity, pharynx, esphagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, rectum, anus) and other associated structures/organs/glands (salivary glands, gall bladder, liver, pancreas)
what are the areas to identify in the Neck region:
Larynx
Trachea
Thymus gland
Thyroid gland
Parotid glands
what is a parotid gland?
It is a neck gland, a diffuse dark triangular gland
What is the thoracic cavity?
It is the:
Diaphragm
Lungs
Heart
What are the 13 items located in the Peritoneal cavity? May include associated region & parts.
Liver
Gall bladder
Common bile duct
Hepatic portal vein
Esophagus: tube connecting oral cavity to stomach, swallowing can be initiated voluntarily but it is generally controlled by a brain region
Stomach (cardiac region, fundus, pyloric region), pyloric sphincter
Small intestine (duodenum, jejunum, ileum), ileocolic valve
Large intestine
Caecum
Rectum
Pancreas
Spleen
Kidneys, adrenal glands
Urinary bladder
Internal anatomy of digestive system:
Identify general terms:
Peritoneal (abdominal) cavity = The space enclosed by the peritoneum. It is divided into two portions, the greater sac and the lesser sac or omental bursa, which lies behind the stomach. The two sacs are connected by the foramen of winslow, or epiploic foramen.
THORACIC CAVITY = subdivided into a PERICARDIAL CAVIT (heart) and 2 PLEURAL CAVITIES (lungs)
Serosal membrane: smooth, shiny membranes that prvent organs from sticking to each other and to the body wall, lines ALL cavities and orgnans
Mesenteries: are sheets of connective tissue that suspends many of the internal organs
NOTE: Parieta = wall of the body
Visceral = are organs w/in the body (cavities)
Parietal Peritoneum = lines pericardial cavity
Visceral peritoneum = covers organs of the peritoneal cavity
Parietal pleura = lines pleural cavity
Visceral pleura = covers surface of lungs
Parietal Pericardium = lines pericardial cavity
Visceral Pericardium = covers surface of heart
The LIVER:
Functions in pig fetus
Function in humans
Liver has 4 lobes and is located to the anterior end of the peritoneal cavity, LARGEST organ in the body, weighing about 3.5 lbs
Liver in pig fetus: blood cell & bone marrow production
Liver in Humans:
- produces bile to aid in the digestion of lipids
- manufacture proteins and lipids
- stores vitamins, irons, and glycogen
- convert glucose to glycogen, and vice versa
- convert ammonia to urea
- detoxify environment toxins (including alcohol)
REGIONS LOCATED ON THE LIVER:
gall bladder is?
common bile duct?
helatic vein?
umbilical vein?
it is oval, sac like, which stores bile produced by the liver
Common bile ducts: are found exiting the gall bladder, located in a shiny, smooth area, they carry bile from the gall bladder to the Duodenum, located in the small intestine
Hepatic Portal Vein: is found in a smooth, shiny area, it carries blood containing nutrients from the capilary beds around the digestive system to the capillary beds w/in the liver
Umbilical vein:
ID the Diaphragm?
The diaphragm divides the peritoneal cavity from the thoracic (chest) cavity
NOTE: at rest, it is DOME shaped
when contracted, it moves downwards, flattens and helps to expand the thoracic cavity and lungs, causing air to be drawn into the mammals lungs
What direction does food enter into the stomach?
Name the 3 stomach regions?
Food enter the stomach throught the esophagus
3 stomach regions:
Upper = cardiac region, which empties into the
FUNDUS which is the bulge region on the left side of the stomach
Lower = the pyloric region, empties into the duodenum
NOTE: the passage of acid chime from the pyloric region into the duodenum is regulated by the muscular PYLORIC SPHINCTER, which can be felt by pinching the area between 2 fingers
ID the small intestine and its 3 regions?
Consists of:
duodenum
jejunum: found in the anterior right (your left) region
ileum: is at the posterior end of the cavity
the above fills much of the pigs peritoneal cavity
ID the Large Intestine?
Coiled in appearance, located in the upper left of the peritoneal cavity
ID the Caecum?
ID the Ileocolic valve?
ID the Rectum?
ID the Pancreas?
- it is located under the intestine
- it is a blind ended sac found at the juncture of the ileum and the colon
- it looks like a green finger projecting out from where the large & small intestine meet at a T-intersection
- it houses symbionts that aid in the digestion of vegetation (cellulose)
- Ileocolic valve, may be visible, it regulate the passage of material between the small & large intestine
- Rectum: the large intestine (or colon) empties here, it looks like a long greenish tube leading to the anus
- Pancreas: located anteriorly on the stomach, usually a whitish hue to it, it has a globular texture to it (like cottage cheese); it has BOTH exocrine & endocrine functions; exocrine secretes several digestion enzymes, trypsinogen for the digestion of proteins and amylase for the digestion of carbohydrates; endocrine gland: the Islets of Langerhans secrete glucagon and insulin to regulate blood glucose levels
ID the Spleen?
ID the Kidneys?
ID the Adrenal glands?
ID the Urinary Bladder?
- Spleen: long triangular organ on the left side (your right0 of the pigs peritoneal cavity; it is NOT part of the digestive system; it functions in the lymphatic system, primarily storing & releasing red blood cells into circulation and recycling old red blood cells
- Kidneys: left & right kidneys located along the dorsal body wall
- Adrenal Gland: located at the anterior end of each kidney, they produce hormones involved in both the short term stress response (epinephrine & norepinephrine) and the long term stress response (ex, cortisol)
- Urinary Bladder: located between the 2 umbilical arteries, it stores urine for excretion
NOTE: in fetus,urine exits through the ALLANTOIC DUCT rather than through the urethra
ID the THORACIC Cavity (chest cavity)?
- it is anterior of the diaphragm
- it is subdivided into 2 areas
a) the Pleural Cavity: holds the lungs
b) the Pericardial Cavity: holds the heart, the heart is enclosed in the serosal membrane, the Parietal Pericardium, the heart is tightly lined by the Visceral Pericardium
ID parts located in the Neck region:
ID the Larynx?
ID the Trachea?
ID the Cartilaginous Rings?
ID the Thymus Gland?
ID the Thyroid Gland?
ID the Paratid Gland?
- Larynx: Large, rounded hard walled cartilaginous organ that contains elastic vocal cords that produce sound when they are stretched and air passes between them
NOTE: laryngitis, causes the vocal cords to swell
- Trachea: smaller, located posterior to the larynx, air moves from the nose & mouth through the larynx, into the trachea, then to the bronchi, bronchioles, finally into the Alveoli
- Cartilagenous Rings: prevents the trachea from collapsing when not filled with air
- Thymus Gland: on either side of the trachea, it is long & globular looking; it continues into the thoiracic cavity and appear to spill over the top of the heart; ** It has a vital role in the immune system, it is where T-cells mature, helps build the immune system
- Thyroid gland: located on the ventral surface of the trachea between the 2 lobes of the thymus gland, looks small, round, brown; hormones include THYROXINE, which helps regulate growth and metabolic rate & calcitonin, which lowers blood Ca levels by stimulating the deposition of Ca ions in bones & reducing Ca ion reabsorbtion by the kidneys
- Paratid Gland: there is a left & right, relatively large (size of nickel) and are located in the lower cheek area, they produce saliva
ID Veins of the Anterior Body (approximate order from head to heart) and their functions?
- Left/right external jugular veins: drain blood from the skull and face
- Left/right internal jugular veins: drain blood from the brain
- Left/right suprascapular veins: drain blood from the region around the shoulder; they empty into the external jugular veins
- Left/right subclavian veins: drain blood from the left/right forelimbs
- Left/right branchiocephalic veins: 2 short trunks that drain the vessels (subclavian veins) into the anterior vena cava
- Anterior vena Cava: the major veins returning blood from the anterior body to the right atrium of the heart
- Posterior Vena Cave: the major vein returning blood from the posterior body to the right atrium of the heart
ID Arteries of the Anterior Body (In approximate order as you work from the heart toward the head)?
- Aortic arch: the aorta arches up & to the left immediately after leaving the left ventricle
- Aorta: the main artery that originates from the left ventricle of the heart. After the aortic arch, the aorta continues posteriorly, often called the descending aorta, located behind the lungs
- Pulmonary trunk: the main artery leaving the right ventricle. In an adult, the pulmonary trunk branches into the pulmonary arteries leading to the lungs
- Ductus Arteriosus: is a temporary connection between the pulmonary trunk and the aorta; in the pulmonary trunk most of the blood bypasses the fetal lungs and travels to the umbilical arteries and ultimately to the placenta to get reoxygenated. At birth, the DA constricts so blood can begin flowing to the lungs, w/in a few days blood flow diminishes in the DA, it then atrophes and becomes a ligament called the LIGAMENTUM ARTERIOSUM
- Brachiocephalic Trunk: the first 4 main branch off of the aortic arch; subsequently branches into the Rt. Subclavian artery and the cartid trunk
- a) Left subclavian artery: the second main branch off of the aortic arch; sends blood to the left forelimb
- b) Right subclavian artery: branches from the brachiocephalic trunk; sends blood to the right forelimb
- c) Carotid Truck: branches from the brachiocephic trunk, and subsequently into the common carotid arteries
- d) Left/Right Common Carotid Arteries: send blood to the head and neck
CIrculatory System of the Posterior Body:
Id the Foramen Ovale?
Id the Fossa Ovalis?
Also what branches into the Lft/Rt bronchi
- Foramen Ovale: the 2nd of the 3 special adaptations of the fetal circulatory system, it is a hole between the lft/rt atria that allows blood to bypass the pulmonary circuit since the lungs are not functional until birth; it is located w/in the lft/right atria it is usually a long piece of latex that goes from the left to the right atrium
- Fossa Ovalis: shallow dish like scar, formed when the foramen ovale seals up; located in both Lft/Rt atrias
- NOTE how the trachea branches into Left/Right bronchi:
Know the Bloods flow chart of the Arteries from the heart to the tail:
List all 12, plus 3 blood vessels?
- Aorta (often called the descending aorta)
- Coeliac Artery: the 1st major branch off the descending aorta in the peritoneal cavity; relatively LARGE artery and usually has 3 branches from the aorta in the level of the anterior end of the kidenys
- a) Gastric Artery: sends blood to the stomach
- b) Splenic Artery: sends blood tothe spleen, stomach and pancreas
- c) Gastrohepatic Artery: sends Blood to the stomach, liver, pancreas and duodenum
- Anterior mesenteric arteries: the 2nd branch off the descending aorta; sends blood to the small & large intestines
- Left/Right renal Arteries: short & stocky, branch off the aorta at the level of the middle of the kidneys; sends blood to the kidneys
- Left/Right Genital Arteries: a pair of very thin arteries that branch from the aorta 1-2 cm posterior of the renal arteries; sned blood to the ovaries or testes
- Posterior Meneteric Artery: a single, thin artery that branches from the aorta immediately posterior of the genital arteries; sneds blood to the large intestine (colon) and rectum
NOTE: At the posterior end of the body the aorta branches into the lft/rt external iliac arteries & the umbilical arteries
- Left/Right External Iliac Arteries: send blood to the hindlimbs
- Umbilical Arteries: sned blood to the placenta to pick up oxygen and nutrients
- Internal Iliac Arteries: branch from the umbilical arteries and move towards the dorsal region of the pelvic area; supply blood to the pelvis
ID the blood flow w/in the Veins as it works from the heart toward the tail?
- Posterior Vena Cava: returns blood from the posterior body to the right atrium of the heart
- Hepatic Veins: embedded in the liver and they join the posterior vena cava posterior of the heart; return blood from the liver to the posterior vena cava
- Hepatic Portal Vein: located to the left of the gall bladder, it collects blood from the capillary beds of the digestive system (stomach, lg & sm intestine, pancreas) & spleen & carries it to the liver's capillary beds (nutirent levels are monitored & adjusted here) from the liver the blood flows via hepatic veins to the posterior vena cava
- Umbilical Vein: returns blood from the placenta to the fetus; this blood is high in oxygen and nutrient content
- Ductus Venosus: 3rd special fetal circulatory adaptations; buried inside the liver it is a shunt that connects the umbilical vein to the posterior vena cave, thus diverting 1/2 of the blood away from the liver & returning it directly to the heart
- Left/Right Renal Veins: located near the renal arteries; returning blood from the kidenys to the posterior vena cava
- Left/Right Genital Veins: unlikely to see, they return blood from the ovaries or testes to the posterior vena cave
THE ILIAC VEINS:
* Left/Right Internal Iliac Veins: return blood from the return, urinary bladder and genital area to the common iliac veins
* Left/Right External Iliac Veins: largest branches of the common iliac vein; returns blood from the hind legs to the common iliac veins
* Left/Right Common Iliac Veins: the internal & external iliac veins merge to form the common iliac vein, which returns the blood to the posterior vena cava
Summary the 3 Special Adaptations of the Fetal Circulatory System:
1) the Ductus Arteriosus: allows the fetus blood to bypass the pulmonary circuit since the lungs are NOT functional before birth; Most of the blood enters the Rt atrium from the Anterior Vena Cava and moves to the Rt ventricle & out the pulmonary trunk, here b/c of the ductus arteriosus, most of the blood in the pulmonary trunk is shunted into the descending aorta rather than going to the lungs via the pulmonary arteries.
2) the Foramen Ovale: most of the blood entering the Rt.atrium from the POSTERIOR VENA CAVA moves to the Lft.atrium via the foramen ovale. From the Lft. atrium, this blood moves to the lft. ventricle and out the aorta. Thus, nearly all of the blood entering the Rt. atrium ends up bypassing the lungs & instead is sent out to the body via the aorta
NOTE: this shunting of blood past the pulmonary circuit is adavptive bc the fetus lungs are not functional until birth, & so energy would be wasted sending blood to them
3) the Ductus Venosus: the mothers liver already has monitored & balanced the nutrient level of the blood; so, the Ductus Venosus is a shunt in the fetal circulatory system that causes 1/2 of the blood entering the fetus from the umbilical vein to bypass the liver entirely & flow directly into the posterior vena cava.
NOTE: this shunt is adaptive bc it send blood w/the highest oxygen content on a direct path from the umbilical vein to the heart & then to the tissues rather than having that blood stall in the capillary beds of the liver
List all additional info about Fetal Circulation?
NOTE: the fetal & maternal blood NEVER mix
- the placneta is a fusion of the amniotic egg's CHORION & AMNION, which lie against the highly vascularized uterine wall.
So, ALL gases, nutrients, nitrogenous waste simply diffuse from the fetal capillaries across the placneta & into the maternal capillaries, vice versa.
- Oxygen content of the fetus is quite low compared to the oxygen after birth, which has 2 causes:
-a) the umbilical vein contains blood w/the highest oxygen content, which flows to the posterior vena cava via the ductus venosus or via the liver and hepatic veins, where deoxygenated blood is returning from the fetus tissues, the blood entering the heart (and subsequently pumped the heart) is a mixture of high/low oxygen blood.
- b) by the time the maternal blood reaches the placenta, much of the oxygen has been used up, therefore the partial pressure gradient that drives oxygen from the maternal capillaries to the fetal capillaries is NOT all that strong, as a result, the most highly oxygenated blood in the umbilical vein has relatively low oxygen content to begin with
NOTE: a fetus can handle this low oxygen environment just fine bc the fetus has a different type of hemoglobin in their red blood cells verses its mothers; the fetus HEMOGLOBIN has a much higher affinity for oxygen than does the adult form, which allows the fetus' blood to pick up oxygen despite the relatively low oxygen content of the maternal blood on the other side of the placenta
ID the PLACENTAL MEMBRANE?
throughtout the fetal stage of development, the maternal blood supplies the fetus:
Oxygen
Nutrients
& Removes fetal wastes
which are carried to & from the fetal body by the umilical blood vessels