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83 Cards in this Set

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Pigs Scientific Name:
Sus scrofa (either italisized or underlined)
Pigs and Humans Kingdom:
Animalia
Pigs and Humans Phylum
Chordata
Pigs and Humans Class
Mammalia
Pigs order:
Artiodactyla
Humans order:
primates
Characteristics of mammals
-have fur
-bear live young
-nourish young with milk from mammary glands
largest group of mammals
placental mammals
definition placental mammal
they develop completely inside their mother's uterus before birth
gestation period
time of development of a fetus in the uterus
pig gestation period:
115 days
placenta
capilairy rich organ that attaches to the wall of the uterus and surrounds they embryo
placental function
carry nutrients and oxygen from the mother's blood, waste exchange, carbon dioxide removal
quadraped
four legged
biped
two legged
digitigrade locomotion
walking on all four toes
plantigrade locomotion
walking on feet soles
lateral orientation
toward the side
umbilical cord
carries food and oxygen from mother to fetus and carries wastes from fetus to mom
snout
push, lift weights, and dig (noses of pig)
external nares
inhale, warm, and filter air (like the nostrils)
pinnae
external ears, aid in hearing
rooter
the rigid edge of a pigs snout that helps it dig
nicitating membrane
3rd eyelid for protection
anus
terminal opening of the digestive tract
periderm (epitrichium)
thin covering of wax over the entire body of fetus cuz the fetus is submurged in water and it protects the skin
fetus
later stage of development that CONTAINS BONES
embryo
earliest stage of development, has no bones
digits
toes
digitigrade
walks on toes, not soles of feet
skeletal system support:
provides supportive framework for body tissues and organs, give body shape
skeletal system protection:
provides protection for internal organs
blood cell production:
produces different blood cells in the bone marrow (SKELETAL)
skeletal system movement:
provides a strong/lite framework and anchorage for muscles, joints allow flexibility
skeletal system minerals:
stores minerals esp. calcium
how many bones does the human have
206
what is the one bone that human has but not the pig
clavicle
are bones alive
yes, they are made up of cells
2 main skeletal parts
axial, appendicular
how many vertebray can a human/pig have
human:34
pig:56
skull:
human and pig have skulls made of up of cranium
ribs
12 pairs of ribs in human
14-15 in pig
sternum
place in center of chest where ribs attach
pectoral girdle
in man there are 2 parts of scapulas and clavicles, but pigs have no clavicles
forelimbs
(ARMS), hands and arms in human, hands have 5 digits, only difference is pig has 4 digits
pelvic girdle
have 3 separate bones fused during fetal development
hindlimbs
legs/feet in humans, pigs have only 4 digits
caudal
means the posterior or inferior part of the body
muscular posture maintenance:
certain skeletal muscles are kept in partially contracted state to hold up body
muscular joint stability:
some skeletal muscles help stabalize highly movable joints such as shoulders
muscular heat generation:
muscles generate heat as byproduct of use
voluntary muscles
controlled by free will
involuntary muscles
smooth muscles that can not be controled at will
flexion
to bend at a joint decreasing the angle at that joint
extension
to streighten joint increasing the angle at that joint
adduction
to move appendage away from sagittal midline ex:raising arms from rest at sides to shoulder level
abduction
to move appendage toward sagittal midline ex:lowering arms from shoulder level to rest at sides
antagonists:
muscle responsible for returning a muscle to its origional position
peritoneum
lines the abdominal cavity, supports organs
diaphram
formes an airtight cavity between chest and abdomen, causes air to flow in and out of lungs
hard palate
rolls food into a ball in order to swallow
soft palate
helps swallow
salivairy glands
secretes enzymes to aid in digestion
esophagus
tube that pushes food to stomach from the mouth
gall bladder
stores bile secreted by the liver and releases it to the duodenum
cystic duct
bile is transferred from gall bladder to duodenum
hepatic duct
take bile from liver to gall bladder
cecum
vestigial, end of small intestine (like appendix in human)
rectum
last portion of the large intestinge, passage for feces out of the body
sphincters
close of enterence and exits in the digestive system, there are 3: cardiac, pyloric, and anal
appendix
vestigial structure in humans like the cecum, same location as cecum
bile duct
small tube that connects the liver and gall bladder to the intestine that carries bile
trace food bite
mouth, esophagus, cardiac sphincter, stomach, pyloric sphincter, small intestine, large intestine, colon, rectum, anus, anal sphincter
mesentery
double layer of peritoneum membrane that connects intestines, blood suppy to intestine, shiny and keps intestines oildd
renal arteries/veins
takes/carries to/away blood from/to kidneys
nephron
a tubelike strucutre in the kidneys that filters wastes from the body and retains useful molecules
what is an epiglottis function
to prevent food from giong into the lungs when swallowing
trace air through body
external nares/mouth, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, broncioles, alveoli
lobes of the right lung:
4
lobes of the left lung
3
right lung lobes of human:
3
left lung lobes of human:
2
why does the left lung have less than the right lung
the heart occupies place where left lung would be