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81 Cards in this Set

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What are the internal organs of the female reproductive system?
1. Ovaries
2. Duct system
What are the external organs of the female reproductive system?
1. External genitalia
2. Mammary glands
How is the ovary organized?
Into a Cortex + Medulla surrounded by a covering
What is the ovary's covering made of?
Germinal epithelium
Is this germinal epithelium a contributor of germinal cells?
No; it's a misnomer
What is the dense fibrous CT just deep to the epithelium called?
Tunica albuginea
What 2 things are found in the ovarian cortex?
1. Ovarian follicles
2. Stromal cells
What does the ovarian medulla contain?
1. Hilar cells
2. Loose CT, blood vessels and nerves.
Is there an observable boundary between ovarian cortex and medulla?
No
What 3 cell types are involved in follicle development?
1. Oocytes
2. Follicle cells (granulosa)
3. Stromal cells
What is the first stage of follicle development?
Primordial follicle
What does a primordial follicle consist of?
A primary oocyte and the follicle cells around it.
What type of follicular cells surround the primordial follicle?
Simple squamous
Is there a basement membrane under the follicle cells in a primordial follicle?
No
What are groups of primordial follicles connected by?
Intercellular bridges
What is a Germinal Vesicle?
The large nucleus within an oocyte of a primordial follicle.
What stage is after the primordial follicle?
Primary follicle
What are 2 types of primary follicles?
1. Unilaminar PF
2. Multilaminar PF
What type of follicle cells surround the unilaminar PF? What about the multilaminar PF?
Unilaminar: Simple cuboidal
Multilaminar: Stratified cuboidal
Does the primary follicle have a basement membrane?
Yes
What begins to appear in the primary follicle stage?
Zona pellucida
What is the Zona pellucida?
A homogenous, eosinophilic, acellular layer of glycoprotein and proteoglycans
Where is the Zona pellucida?
Just inside the innermost layer of follicular cells
Why do some primary follicles appear to lack nuclei?
Because they are very large cells and the nuclei may be out of the plane of section.
What space is created as the 2ndary Follicles form?
Antrum
What is the Antrum?
A plasma exudate-filled space containing hyaluronate rich fluid
What does the Theca interna and externa that surrounds the antrum contain?
Blood vessels, fibroblasts, and collagen.
What do the cuboidal follicular cells that make up the theca interna produce?
Estrogen precursors
So the 4 important structures in 2ndary follicles are:
1. Membrana granulosa
2. Theca interna
3. Zona pellucida
4. Antrum
What determines which 2ndary follicles will mature to the point of ovulation?
Their density of FSH receptors!
What does the mature Graafian follicle secrete?
Inhibin
What is the function of inhibitin?
To inhibit FSH secretion
Why does FSH need to be inhibited?
To prevent the growh of other antral follicles so that one remains dominant.
What happens if a primordial or primary follicle undergoes atresia?
No scar forms in the ovary
What happens if an Antral follicle undergoes atresia?
A scar and glassy membrane form and the theca cells enlarge.
What 6 features are visible in maturing/mature Graafian follicles?
1. Zona pellucida
2. Oocyte
3. Cumulus oophorus
4. Corona radiata
5. Antrum
6. Theca externa
7. Graafian follicles
When does FSH kick in to mediate changes in the follicle?
In the 2ndary follicle stage
What is the purpose of FSH?
To stimulate follicular development
What shuts off FSH?
Inhibin from the dominant follicle
What happens after FSH shuts off and the dominant Follicle has been established?
Maturation of the primary oocyte within the dominant follicle.
How do you distinguish a Primary follicle and a 2ndary/Antral follicle?
By looking at what surrounds the Zona Pellucida and oocyte
What surrounds the zona pellucida and oocyte in a Primary follicle?
Follicular cells (cuboidal)
What surrounds the zona pellucida and oocyte in a secondary follicle?
The antral cavity
What surrounds the antral cavity?
Membrana granulosa
What is the membrana granulosa made of?
Cuboidal follicular cells
What layer is just outside the Membrana Granulosa?
Theca interna
What is the Theca interna made of and what does it do?
Made of a few layers of cuboidal follicular cells, secretes estrogen precursors
What is the stack of cells in the Mature follicle that supports the oocyte?
Cumulus oophorus
What is the layer of cells that just surrounds the zona pellucida of the oocyte in the mature graafian follicle?
Corona radiata
What final layer develops in the mature graafian follicle?
Theca externa
What does the theca externa consist of?
Several layers of smooth muscle cells and CT cells with collagen fibers
What results from Follicular degeneration?
Atretic follicles
Which type of follicle degeneration is easiest to see?
Primary follicle atresia leaves a scar; primordials don't.
What will you see when a primary follicle degenerates?
Its zona pellucida collapsed onto itself
Why can't you see a primordial follicle after atresia?
Because they don't have a ZP
What changes in the ovarian wall and follicle precede ovulation?
-Thinning of the ovarian wall
-Follicles dissolve the basement membrane
What this the ovarian wall?
Collagenases
What causes the BM to dissolve?
Plasmin activated by Plasmin activator from follicle cells.
What causes ovulation?
The surge of LH stimulated by positive feecback of estrogen
What is leftover after ovulation?
An empty follicle, which starts to collapse
What does follicle collapse result in?
Vascular invasion of the empty follicle and formation of the Corpus Luteum
What is the Corpus luteum?
A temporary endocrine gland that secretes Estrogen and progesterone
What 2 types of cells are in the corpus luteum?
-Granulosa lutein cells
-Theca lutein cells
What did granulosa lutein cells come from?
Membrana granulosa - the layer that surrounded the antrum cavity.
What do Granulosa cells look like?
They are eosinophilic, have round nuclei, and EXTENSIVE cytoplasm
Where are the Theca lutein cells?
Within connective tissue invaginations that radiate into the Granulosa lutein cells
How do you identify areas that contain Theca lutein cells?
They are slightly more basophilic because they contain more densely packed nuclei.
How do Theca cells compare to Granulosa size wise?
Thecas are smaller
What's more peripheral; theca or granulosa?
Theca
What do Theca cells secrete?
Progesterone
What do Granulosa cells secrete?
Progesterone
Estrogen
Relaxin
What is the function of the corpus luteum?
Secretion of progesterone to maintain the endometrial lining during pregnancy and prevent it from sloughing off.
When a corpus luteum is replaced by a scar what does it become?
Corpus Albicans
What is the lifetime of the corpus luteum when fertilization does not occur?
10-12 days
What maintains the corpus luteum when fertilization does occur?
hCG
What secretes that hCG?
Trophoblast
So what mediates follicle cell proliferation?
FSH
What does FSH stimulate exactly?
-Development of follicles
-Aromatase activity in follicle cells
-Secretion of follicle fluid
What does LH stimulate? (4 things)
1. Production of androgens from Theca cells
2. Follicle vascularization
3. Preovulatory events
4. CL maintainance
What does Estrogen do?
-Increases LH and FSH receptors on follicle and theca cells
-Primes follicular tissues for response to progesterone
What does Progesterone do?
Local levels in the follicle mediate ovulation.