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40 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are causes of hypocalcemia?
alkalosis, kidney disease
What are S/S of hypocalcemia
tetany, dysrhythmias, cardiac arrest
What are causes of hypercalcemia?
increased parathyroid hormone, myeloma, antacids
What are S/S of hypercalemia?
kidney stones, decreased DTR, coma dysrhythmias, cardiac arrest
What are causes of hypomagnesia?
alcohol withdrawal, large losses of urine
What are clinical manifestations of hypomagnesia?
agitation, depression, tremor, tetany, tachycardia, hypotension, dysrhythmias
What are causes of hypermagnesia?
renal failure, adrenocortical insufficiency
What are clinical manifestations of hypermagnesia?
drowsiness, confusion, coma, paralysis, increased PR interval, bradycardia, cardiac arrest
What are causes of hypokalemia?
diabetic acidosis, metabolic acidosis,
What are some clinical manifestations of hypokalemia?
anorexia, paralytic ileus, lethargy, depression, weakness, flaccid paralysis, respiratory arrest, myocardial damage, cardiac arrest
What are causes of hyperkalemia?
renal failure, adrenal insufficiency, cushings, metabolic acidoses
What are clinical manifestations of hyperkalemia?
NV, colic, numbness, paresthsias, flaccid paralysis, V-Fib, cardiac arrest, oliguria, anuira
What are causes of hyponatremia?
AIDS, adrenal insufficiency (Addison's)
What are clinical manifestations of hyponatremia?
abdominal cramps, confusion, shock, weakness
What are causes of hypernatremia?
diabetes insipidus, hyperadrenalism (Cushings)
What are the clinical manifestations of hypernatremia?
thirst, dry sticky mucous membranes, low urine output, firm skin turgor tachycardia, death
What are the normal values for Sodium?
136-145 mEq/L
What are the normal values for potassium?>
3.5-5.2 mEq/L
What are the normal values for magnesium?
1.8-2.6 mEq/dL
What are the normal values for calcium?
8.8-10.4 mg/dL
What are the normal values for pH?
7.35-7.45
What are the panic values for sodium?
less than 125 mEq/L and greater than 152 mEq/L
What are the panic values for potassium?
2.5 (causes v-fib) and greater than 8.0 mEq/L which causes cardiac muscle irritability
What are the panic values for Calcium?
less than 4.4 mg/dL which causes tetany and convulsions and greater than 13 mg/dL (arrhythmias, coma)
What are the panic values for magnesium?
below 1.2 (tetany) and greater than 5.0 mEq/dL (10-15 results in respiratory paralysis)
What are the normal values for bicarbonate?
22-26 mEq/L
what systems maintain acid-base balance?
chemical buffer system, respiratoy, and renal
What are the norms for CO2 in the blood?
35-45 mm Hg
What conditions characterize respiratory acidosis?
pH < 7.35
PaCO2 > 45 mm Hg
What kind of people are at risk for respiratoy acidosis?
COPD, pneumonia, chronic bronchitis, respiratory depressants, kyphoscoliosis, neuromuscular disorders, atelectasis
What are the clinical manifestations of respiratory acidosis?
headache, lethargy, irritability, blurred vision, confusion, nausea, anxiety, changes in mental status, tachycardia/dysrhythmias, hypercapnea (excess CO2 in blood) HTN, hyperkalemia, flushed skin
What conditions characterize respiratory alkalosis?
ph > 7.45
PaCO2 <35 mm Hg
Who is at risk for respiratory alkalosis?
hyperventilation, fever, pulmonary emboli, asthma
What are the clinical manifestations of respiratoy alkalosis?
anxiety, SOB, muscle cramps or weakness, heart palpitations, hyperventilation, confusion, tachycardia, hyperactive DTR, muscle spams,tetany, Chvostek's sign or Trousseau's sign r/t low Calcium
What conditions characterize metabolic acidosis?
pH < 7.35
HCO3 < 22 mEq/L
Who is at risk for metabolic acidosis?
Excess organic acids added to body fluids, loss of bicarbonate from body fluids, type 1 diabetes, starvation, low carb diets, strenuous excercise, diarrhea, fistulas, renal failure
What are the clinical manifestations of metabolic acidosis?
Anorexia, NV, abdominal pain, headache, thirst, confusion/stupor, warm flushed skin, hyperventilation, bradycardia, hyperkalemia
What conditions characterize metabolic alkalosis?
pH > 7.45
HCO3 > 26 mEq/L
Who is at risk for metabolic alkalosis?
loss of stomach acid, excessice alkali intake (antacids, laxatives) massive blood transfusion therapy, hypokalemia, potassium depleting diuretics
What are the clinical manifestations of metabolic alkalosis?
tetany, feeling lightheaded, hyperventilation, mental confusion, changes in LOC, seizures, hyper-reflexia, low Calcium or Potassium levels (Trousseau's sign) dysrhythmias, respiratory failure