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24 Cards in this Set

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Why is it important to address behavior problems?
• IDEA legally requires it
• Behavior problems in the short term can limit the misbehavior student’s exposure to instruction and learning as well as that of his/her peers
• Behavior problems over the long run can limit the student’s ability to finish school and subsequently limit future career opportunities.
Before attempting to change a student’s behavior, what are 4 things you should consider?
• Talking about behavior change is a lot easier than actually doing it.
• Behavior change typically does not occur quickly.
• Changing a student’s behavior probably will require the teacher to change his/her behavior.
• There is no one right way to change behavior.
What are the three basic ways to change behavior?
• Antecedent Interventions
• Consequence Interventions
• Teaching a functionally equivalent behavior
Can you use more than one intervention at a time to change behavior?
Yes. It is common to use more than one strategy.
Define and give an example of positive reinforcement.
Contingent upon a behavior, the addition of something (usually pleasant) that results in an increase in the future rate or probability of that behavior.
Define and give an example of negative reinforcement.
Contingent upon a behavior, the prevention or removal of something (usually unpleasant) that results in an increase in the future rate or probability of that behavior.
Define and give an example of extinction.
Contingent upon a behavior, the withholding of reinforcement.
What is the affect of extinction on the rate of behavior.
There is often an initial increase called an extinction burst, following by a gradual decrease in the occurrence of the behavior.
What are the 2 things required for extinction?
• You first must be able to identify what is the reinforcer that is maintaining the behavior.
• You must be able to control access to the reinforcer.
When is extinction the same thing as ignoring the behavior?
When the function of the undesired behavior is to obtain attention.
Why can extinction be hard to implement?
• The decrease in responding can be slow and it can be difficult to withhold reinforcement long enough for the behavior to show significant reduction
• It can be difficult to withhold all reinforcement, especially in a group setting
Define and give an example of positive punishment.
Contingent upon a behavior, the addition of something (usually unpleasant) that results in an decrease in the future rate or probability of that behavior.
Define and give an example of negative punishment.
Contingent upon a behavior, the prevention or removal of something (usually pleasant) that results in an decrease in the future rate or probability of that behavior.
Before attempting to change a student’s behavior through using punishment, what are 4 things you should consider?
• Punishment should never be your first course of action. In just about all cases, a reinforcement procedure will effectively change undesired behavior.
• It’s unethical to continue a procedure when it is not functioning to change behavior.
• The more punishment is used, the less effective it is.
• Delayed punished is rarely effective.
• Punishment is more effective when it is moderately aversive – there is often no point in implementing a mildly aversive procedure
What are at least 3 side effects of punishment?
• Emotional upset (e.g., crying or anger)
• We tend to dislike people who punish us
• We will avoid and escape punishing people
• Punishment only teaches the student what NOT to do, it does not teach the student what to do
• The effect of punishment is dependent upon the presence of the person delivering the punishment.
What are factors that affect the effectiveness of reinforcement and punishment?
• Timing
 The more immediate, the more effective.
 The more delayed, the less effective
• Frequency
 During initial learning, more effective for each and every instance of the behavior to be consequated
 For long-term maintenance, intermittent consequences are best
• Motivation
 Highly preferred reinforcers are more effective
 Highly aversive punishers are more effective
What’s a setting event?
A setting event is an antecedent event that is ubiquitous and/or remote in time.
What is an advantage of antecedent interventions over consequence interventions?
An antecedent intervention can prevent the behavior from ever occurring in the first place.
What is a prompt?
A prompt is a type of antecedent. It is a way to cue or assist the desired response to occur.
What is follow through?
When a child is given an instruction by an adult and does not follow it, then the adult prompts the desired response. The student is not allowed not comply with the adult request.
What is the structure or topography of a behavior?
It refers to what the behavior looks like.
What is the function of a behavior?
It refers to the purpose or the why behind a behavior.
What is functional equivalence training?
• The first step is to identify the function of the undesired behavior
• The second step is to teach a more appropriate behavior that serves the same function as the undesired behavior
Why is functional equivalence training considered to be the highest level of behavior intervention?
• Other procedures are effective in changing behavior, but if there is still a need that is not being met, the student will find another way – often undesired – to fulfill that need.