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39 Cards in this Set

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RDA
Recommended Daily Allowancw
Daily intake of nutrients that meets needs of most healthy people
EAR
Estimated Average Requirements

Intake level for 1/2 of people in specific group
AI
Adequate Intake
Used when not enough scientific information is available
UL
Tolerable Upper Level Intake
Maximum intake that should not pose health problems
Definition of Vitamin
Vital, organic dietary substance
Not a CHO, protein, fat or mineral
Necessary only in small amounts
Vitamin Functions
Controls agents in cell metabolism
Components in body tissue construction
Prevents specific nutritional deficiency disease
Vitamin A (AKA)
Retinol
Functions of Vit A
Vision-retina
Tissue strength-epithelial tissue
Growth- skeletal and soft tissue
Xerosis
Caused by deficiency of Vit A
Itching, burning, red inflamed eyelids
Xerophthalamia
Caused by deficiency of Vit A
Blindness
Preformed Vit A (AKA)
Retinol
Provitamin A (AKA)
Carotene
Preformed Vit A (form and food sources)
In a complete sate in ingested foods
Found in animal foods (liver, kidney, egg yolk) and fortified milk
Provitamin A (form and food sources)
Requires conversion in body to be in complete usable form
Fruits and vegtables- orange in color, green leafy veg, broccoli and cabbage
Body storage of Vit A
Liver stores large amount
Toxis S&S Vit A
Liver injury
Food sources of Vit A
Fish liver oils, liver, egg yolk, butter, cream, fat part of milk, fortified margarine, beta-carotene
Digestion of Vit A
Requires bile salts to absorb from intestines
Acts as antioxidant
Stability of Vit A
Unstable in heat and in contact with air
Cookin in uncovered pot will destroy
Requirements of Vit A
Men require more than women (RDA)
Vitamin D (AKA)
Choleclciferol
Function of Vit D
Absorption of Ca and P
Bone mineralization
Deficiency of Vit D
Rickets
Toxicity of Vit D
Calcification of soft tissues
Calcium deposits in kidney nephrons
Food sources of Vit D
Natural- yeast, fish & liver oils
Fortified foods- milk, butter
Stability of Vit D
Stable to heat, agin and storage
Requirements of Vit D
Varies with sun exposure
Vit E (AKA)
Tocopherol
Functions of Vit E
Antioxidant- protects cellular structures from being broken down by O2
Selenium metabolism- secondary line of defense in protecting cell membrane
Deficiency of Vit E
Hemolytic anemia- lipid membrane of RBCs are oxidized by O2
Requirements of Vit E
Children require less
Toxicity of Vit E
No known toxic effects
Food sources for Vit E
Veg oils rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids
Milk, eggs, muscle meats, fish, cereal, leafy veg
Stability of Vit E
Stable to heat and acids
Not stable to alkalis, light and frying
Forms of Vit K
Phyllaquinone- dietary form
Menaquinone- synthesized by intestinal bacteria
Functions of Vit K
Blood clotting
Bone development
Food sources For Vit K
Green leafy vegtables
Small amounts in dairy, meats, fortified cereals, fruits and vegetables
Requirements for Vit K
No RDA because intestinal bacteria can synthesize
Stability of Vit K
Sensitive to light and radiation