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66 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Apparel
Actual garment made of material
Clothing
ANY BODY COVERING
-tangible or material object connected to human body
Dress
anything man does to ornament or cover body
3 Forms of Dress
Body Modifications, Body Enclosures, Attachment to body
Appearance
Any body modifications that are VISUALLY PERCIEVED only
Use of perfume and cologne are:
DRESS not Appearence
-not Visually Percieved
Appearance Management
wearer's perspective
Appearance Perception
viewer's perspective
-includes clothing and body
-based on clothing, age, gender, etc.
Criticism
a lack of agreement as to what consititutes modesty (vary by culture and historical era; modesty is socially learned)
Immodesty
people display their bodies to attract the opposite sex
-lack of evidence as to how cross cultural diff. can be explained
Protection Critisicm
clothing believed to originate in tropical regions where there is least need for protection from climate
Cognitive Perspective
-classifying people based on appearance CUES
(punk, yuppie)
Symbolic Interactionist
meanings of clothes in social interactions
Cognitive
-individual thought and processes
Cultural
cultural influences on social meanings
Symbolic Interactionist Perspective
-both appearance managment and perception
-2 way interaction
-meanings created are dynamic and changeable
ex: skirt worn by man and woman
Symbolic Interaction Persp.
is:
Pure observation, no manipulation
Culture Perspective
meanings embedded in the culture context
ex: what it means to be beautiful in American Culture
Cognitive Social & Psychological
study effects of clothing and appearance cues (stimuli) on people's perceptions by manipulating them in experiments
Lab Experiment
in lab setting
Field Experiment
In natural setting
Participant Observation
close contact with individuals under study
-takes part in individual's everyday activities
Non-Participant Observation
(field study, work)
-Simply observing and group you are watching does not know you are there
Ethnographics
Study of a particular culture
Content Analysis
-cultural forms may be content analyzed
-Content of written, spoken, or visual material
(magazines, TV, movies, etc.)
Interviews
assesing individual interpretations of cultural forms through an interview
Sex
the biological dimension of being make or female
Gender
sociocultural dimension of being male or female
-sociall constructed aspects of behavior, beliefs, and personality expectations
Gender Role
set of percieved behavioral norms associated particularly with males or females in a given society
Gender Roles are:
-socially and culturally defined
-transmitted by social groups
-kids start to learn around age 3
-segregated behavioral patterns for each sex
Interviews
assesing individual interpretations of cultural forms through an interview
Sex
the biological dimension of being make or female
Gender
sociocultural dimension of being male or female
-sociall constructed aspects of behavior, beliefs, and personality expectations
Gender Role
set of percieved behavioral norms associated particularly with males or females in a given society
Gender Roles are:
-socially and culturally defined
-transmitted by social groups
-kids start to learn around age 3
-segregated behavioral patterns for each sex
Quote
Men should have "power" women should have "beauty"
Gender is a matter of
culture
western cultures
trousers= military & masculinity since Middle Ages (worn by knights)
70's & 80's
dress for success- suits for work for men and women
(sign of social equality)
Sexism
bias or discrimination against people on the basis of their sex
ex: "mankind"
Children
-highly influenced by gender
-girls assisted more than boys
-toys reinforce social stereotypes
Peers
-important during adolescence
-girls picked by peers according to degree of attractiveness but not for boys
School
-more attention paid to boys
-girls praised more for conduct than academic achievement
Media
-more male characters than female
-kids who watch more TV have more stereotypes
Clothing is:
-gender typed by color and style
Provacatively dressed women
incite sexual harassment
Culturally defined social norms:
Can be challenged through social interaction
ex: cross dressing
Beauty is:
a social construct
social comparison
a way in which individuals evaluate their differences with others
kinds of social comparison
upward, downward
Upward
you compare yourself to others who are superior to yourself
Downward
comparing yourself to others who are inferior than yourself
Cultural Standards
"prototype"
-narrowly defined
-reinforced through media images
Body Image
mental image we hold of our bodies, which is perceptual and affective
Perceptual
what we think we see
Affective
how we feel about our percieved body attributes
Developmental Factors
Maturational Status
Social pressure increases
with age as bodies begin to change
-advancing in puberty more negative body images for girls (teasing)
Sociocultural Factors
-cultural ideal of beauty
-media influences
-gender role stereotypes
High Self-Schema
body image is center of importance to you
Low Self-Schema
body image not as important to you
Body Image Disturbance (Disorder)
intense preoccupation with changing the body so it meets the mental conception of how it should look
Anorexia
-refusal to maintain weight over a minimal normal weight
-intense pursuit of thinness
-extreme fear of gaining weight
Bulimia
-secretive
-recurrent
-binging & purging
-normal weight
Binge Eating
-secretive
- chronic eating of large amounts of food
-often overweight
Sub-Clinical
-counting calories
-eat "fat-free" only
-eat small amounts
- diet pills