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132 Cards in this Set

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Classics
fashion items spread over time
Fads
last a short time usually 6 months or less
Fashion
The current style or accepted mode of dress in favor at the moment.
3 Components of Fashion
style, acceptance, timeliness
Style
distinctive appearance of a garment
Mass Fashion
styles that are widely accepted (volume fashion)
Design
variations of style due to seaming, materials, and trimmings
Silhouette
outter shape of apparel
Straight (tubulor) silhouette
narrow, cylindrical w/ little hip indentation
A-line Silhouette
falls from shoulder to hem w/ no indentation at hip
Inverted triangle
top half wider than bottom half
Couturier
designs haute couture
Pret- a-porter
French ready to wear
Clothing
body covering not including body modifications
Appearance
total composite image created by both clothing and human body
Transformations
color- hair dye
texture- perm, scarification
shape- change in weight
Dress
includes features of DRESSED body w/ modifications and supplements of ALL senses
Most common misconception
designers and retailers dictate fashion and force it upon consumer
other misconceptions:
fashion only influences women
Fashion is mysterious and unpredictable
Fashion Cycle
reflects acceptance of style or trend
5 stages of fash cycle
1) introduction
2) rise in popularity
3) peak of popularity
4) decline in popularity
5) rejection
Downward Flow(Trickle-Down) Theory
upper-class sends fashion down to lower class
Upward Flow (Trickle-Up)Theory
Youth influences styles (street, grunge)
Horizontal-Flow (trickle- across) Theory
* MOst Important
fashion moves across groups of the same social status- reatailers watch their own consumers
Innovators and the Influentials
- fashion leaders
- wear new fashion before it is acceptable
Fashion Followers
-conform to others
Retail Market Segment
customers who have similar needs and are satisfied by same retail mix
Methods for segmenting Retail Markets
Geographic
Demographic
Psychographic
Demographic
age
sex
ethnicity
income
occupation
eduaction level
Gray Market
born before 1945- neglected by fashion
Baby Boomers
born between 1946 - 1964
*Primary spending group
Baby Busters (generation X)
born between 1965-1979
career-oriented, less spending
Echo Boomers (genertation Y, Net generation)
born since 1980
-racially diverse
-technologically educated
Psychographic Segementation
-lifestyles
-values
-personality
Values, Attitudes, and Lifestyle Survey (VALS)
-Personality- profiling system
Fashion Business Structure Flow Chart
Primary, Secondary, Retailers, Consumers
*Auxiliary Fashion Industry sells to all
Primary Level
-raw material producers
-earliest stage
- 2 yr. lead time
Secondary Level
-maufacturers and contracters
-6 months - 1 1/2 yrs. lead time
Retail Level
-Retailers who buy from 2ndry level
- ultimate distributor
-3-6 months lead time
Auxiliary Level
-support service
-publicity, advertising
Internal Horizontal
company expands on level it operates on
(ex: retailer opens more stores)
Vertical
Company expands on levels other than primary function
(ex: apparel co. produces own fabric)
External
Merger- where sale of one co. to another occurs w/ purchasing company remaining dominant
Diversification
company adds new products or services to serve diff. markets
(Gap buys BR and makes Old Nay covering 3 price ranges)
Franchise
purchased operations that conform to the Franchise and benefit from its power
- 1/3 of all retial sales
NAtural Fibers
Cotton - most used
Wool- good for cold
Silk- luxurious, breathable
Linen- wrinkles easily
Manufactured Fibers
synthetic or manmade
starts from polymer or petrochemicals
Cellulosic
raw materials, plants
rayon, lyocell, acetate
Non-Cellulosic (synthetic)
from chemicals from petroleum
polyester, acrylic, spandex
high-tech natural fibers
spiders silk- goat's milk
casein fiber- cow's milk
most common weave
plain weave
Tricot
made with fine-denier filament yarns
Raschel
most complex warp-knit structure
stock dyeing
dyes loose fibers before yarn processing
Yarn dyeing
used to dye woven patterns like stripes, plaids, and checks
Piece dyeing
dyeing a piece of fabric after weaving or knitting
** Least expensive, most widely used
Cross dyeing
-type of piece dyeing
-less expensive
-2 color pattern
Garment Dyeing
whole greige goods garments are dyed after being sewn
Flatbed Screen Printing
uses screen spread over a frame
Rotary Screen Printing
mechanized version of flatbed.
faster
Calendering
passing fabric between heavy rollers
Cross dyeing
-type of piece dyeing
-less expensive
-2 color pattern
Garment Dyeing
whole greige goods garments are dyed after being sewn
Flatbed Screen Printing
uses screen spread over a frame
Rotary Screen Printing
mechanized version of flatbed.
faster
Calendering
passing fabric between heavy rollers
Heat Setting
final finish where man made fabrics are heated to just under melting point. Improves Resilience
Napping
creating a wolly or flannel surface by raising and plucking surfaces of fabric
Shearing
shearing the fabric to take off fuzz
Sanding (Sueding)
rubbing w/ rollers of sandpaper to soften surface
Shrink Control
preshrinking cotton
Caustic Reduction
caustic bath to give silklike feel
Decatizing
use heat and moisture to stabilize wool
Durable Press
apply resin to decrease ironing needed
Mercerizing
treating cotton w. caustic chemical to make silky
Water Repellency
chemical treatment and then woven to make breathable cloth that is water repellent
NAFTA
North American Free Trade Agreement
free market w/ no import duties
Canada, US & Mexico
FTAA
Free Trade Agreement of the Americas
34 western nations
WTO
World Trade Organization
governs worldwide trade- 145 countries- 90% world merchandise trade
ATC
Agreement on Textiles and Clothing
2005 quota removal for WTO members
The New Look
1947 Dior
- longer more fitted
Chanel
1916-21
boyish look/ jersey
Patou
1922-29
Flapper look
Sewing Machine
1846 Elias Howe
1859- Isaac Singer
Gibson Girl
1890s
high neck, puff sleeve blouse, long skirt
ideal middle-class woman
Product Line
grouping of items w/ common theme
(ex: color, fabric, style)
Assortment
Products in product line
Expressive
the feeling you get from a product
Symbolic
culturally defined & shared by members of a culture
( ex: red , white, blue = patriotic)
6 Stages in Product Development Process
1) Planning line
2) creating design concept
3) Developing designs
4) Planning Production
5) Production
6) Distributing the line
Sourcing
determining where the components of a garment will be purchased
Offshore Production
U.S. producing things in foreign countries
-cheaper labor
UPC
bar codes on items for sale
Line
a form that has significantly greater length than width
2 types of lines
-actual
-implied
Vertical Lines
-appear to lengthen
-slimming
Wide Vertical Line
-appears to widen as eye moves across
-strong, bold
Horizontal Lines
-rest, quiet
-appear to shorten
-appear to widen
Wide Horizontal Lines
appear to add width and weight
Diagonal Lines
-movement, action
- appear to lengthen as slant is more vertical
- appears to widen as slant more horizontal
Curved Lines
grace, charm, femininity
- restraining (scoop neck)
- active (busy to look at, floral)
Vertical Lines give you
height and slimness
Horizontal Lines give you
shorten and widen
Shape
a flat space enclosed by a 2-D line
Form
a volume space enclosed by a 3-D surface
Texture
surface quality of an object
1) hand
2) drape
3) determinants of texture
Optical illusions
to appear smaller:
-lightweigtht fabrics
- dull
-clinging
Optical illustions
to add dimension:
-heavy, bulky fabric
-fuzzy surfaced fabrics
- stiff
Pattern
arrangement of lines, spaces, or shapes on or in a fabric
Types of patterns
-in a fabric (using yarns/ weaves)
-applied on surface of completed fabric
- combination of 2
Balance
distribution of visual weight within a form
2 Types of Balance
Formal
informal
Formal Balance
weighted equally, symmetrical
Informal Balance
not weighted equally, asymmetrical
Proportion
relationships of distance, size, amounts in aesthetic forms
Emphasis
focal point, attracts viewer's attention
Optical illusions
to appear smaller:
-lightweigtht fabrics
- dull
-clinging
Optical illustions
to add dimension:
-heavy, bulky fabric
-fuzzy surfaced fabrics
- stiff
Pattern
arrangement of lines, spaces, or shapes on or in a fabric
Types of patterns
-in a fabric (using yarns/ weaves)
-applied on surface of completed fabric
- combination of 2
Balance
distribution of visual weight within a form
2 Types of Balance
Formal
Informal
2 Types of Balance
Formal
Informal
Formal Balance
weighted equally, symmetrical
Informal Balance
not weighted equally, asymmetrical
Proportion
relationships of distance, size, amounts in aesthetic forms
Emphasis
focal point, attracts viewer's attention
Rhythm
feeling of organized movement
Types of rhythm
- simple repetition
- Alternation
- Gradation
- Radiation
Alternation
repeted sequence of only 2 things
Gradation
sequence of adjacent units which change from small to large or light to dark
* Not common
Radiation
-one focal point & lines or colors extend from that point
* Rarest form