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133 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Marriage
the emotional and legal commitment of two people to share emotional and physical intimacy, various tasks, and economic resources
Family
two or more people who are committed to each other and who share intimacy, resources, decision-making reponsibilities, and values
Stepfamilies
families in which one or both of the partners have children from a previous marriage
Social environment
All the factors, both positive and negative, in society that impact individuals and their relationships, such as mass media, the Internet, changing gender roles, and growing urban crowding
Stress
The body and mind's reaction to life
Gender Roles
The traits and behaviors assigned to males and females in a culture
Cultural Identity
A feeling of belonging that evolves from the shared beliefts, values, and attitudes of a group of people; the structure of the group's material, sexual, and kinship relationships
Ethnic Identity
The geographic origin of a minority group within a country or culture; cultural identity transcends ethnic identity
Cultural Group
A set of people who embrace core beliefs, behaviors, values, and norms and transmit them from generation to generation
Coculture
A distinct cultural or social group living within a dominant culture but also having member ship in another culture, such as gay men and lesbians
Ethnic Group
A set of people who are embedded within a larger cultural group or society and who share beliefs, behaviors, values, and norms that are transmitted from generation to generation
Minority Group
A social group that differes from the rest of the population in some ways and that often experiences discrimination and prejudice
Race
A group of people with similar and distinctive physical characteristics
Kinship
The relatedness of certain individuals within a group. Cultures have norms and expectations that structure and govern kin behavior
Nuclear Family
A kinship group in which a husband, a wife, and their children live together in one houshold; also called a conjugal family system
Consanguinal Family System
A family system that emphasizes blood ties more than marital ties
Extended Family
A nuclear family and those related to its members by blood, such as aunts, uncles, cousins, and grandparents
Plural Marriage
A marriage in which a man has more than one wife (polygyny) or a woman has more than husband (polyandry)
Monogamy
A relationship in which a man or a woman has only one mate
Pseudo-kin group
A type of kinship group in which relationships resembling kinship ties develop among "unrelated" individuals
Lineage
Line of descent, influenced by cultural norms. Lineage determines membership in a kinship group, patterns of inheritance, and kinship obligations or responsibilities.
Matrilineal Society
A society in which descent, or lineage, is traced through females
Patrilineal Society
A society n which descent, or lineage, is traced through males
Bilateral Descent
A method of tracing the lineage of children equally through ancestors of both mother and father
Matriarchal Group
A group in which the mother or eldest female is recognized as the head of the family, kinship group, or tribe. Descent is traced through this woman
Patriarchal Society
A group in which the father or eldest male is recognized as the head of thefamily, kinship group, or tribe. Descent is traced through this man.
Equalitarian Group
Structured on the ideals of democracy, a group believing that the rights and perspectives of both sexes and of all genertions ought to be repected. THe societal norms of the US are considered to be equalitarian
Matrilocal Society
A society that encourages newly married couples to live with or near the wife's kin, especiaslly her mother's kinship group
Patrilocal Society
A society that encourages newly married couples to live with or near the husband's kin, especially his father's kinship group
Neolocal Society
A society that encourages newly married couples to establish their own separate, autonomous residence, independent of either partner's parental kinship group
Family cohesion
The togetherness or closeness of a family; one of the three dimensions of the Couple and Family Map
Family flexibility
A family's ability to change and adapt it he face of stress or crisis; one of the three dimensions of the Couple and Family Map
Family Communication
Interaction; sharing of thoughts and feelings; the facilitating dimension of the Couple and Family Map
Extended Family System
One of the four major components of the sociocultural context in which families live; focuses on the degree of importance relatives outside the nuclear family have on the family's life
Social System
One of the four masjor components of the sociocultural context in which families live; encompasses the influence of the community, laws, economic resources, educational oppourtunities, and other external factors on the family.
Belief System
One of the four major components of the socioculturla context in which families live, centering on religious/spiritual/ethical beliefs and other ideas about how to live successfully and happily in the world
Cross-Cultural Family Study
a research study focused on how cultural context influences family issues, among them, values and behaviors, courtship and marriage patterns, communication, roles, work and the family, child rearing patterns, and sexuality
Ethnocentrism
The assumption that one's own culture is the standard by which to judge other cultures
Etic Perspective
The analysis of a society from the outside
Emic Perspective
The analysis of a society from the inside
Assimilation
Adopting the cultural traits and values of the dominant culture
Acculturation
The intermeshing of cultural traits and vales with those of the dominant culture
Segregation
Isolation of an ethnic group within the dominant culture
Stereotypes
A standardized, oversimplified, often foolish and mean-spirited view of someone or something
Prejudice
Negative judgment or opinion having no or limited basis in fact; hostility to a person or group based on physical charateristics
Intercultural Marriage
Marriage between people frm two different cultural or ethnic groups
Conceptual Framework
A set of interconnected ideas, concepts, and assumptions that helps organize thinking from a particular perspective. The field of family science includes a variety of major conceptual frameworks: family systems theory, family strengths framework, family development framework, symbolic interaction framework, social construction framework, and the feminist framework
Theory
Systematically organized knowledge applicable in a wide variety of circumstances; especially, a system of assumptions, accepted principles, and rules of procedure devised to analyze, predict, or otherwise explain the nature or behavior of a specified set of phenomena
Hypothesis
An assertion subject to verification or proof, a presumed relationship between variables
Research Study
Careful, systematic, and patient investigation in a field of knowledge to establish facts or principles, test hypotheses, or better understand processes
Idiographic Approach
A theoretical approach that focuses on the study of individuals and individual differences
Nomothetic Approach
A theoretical approach that focuses on developing a theory that works for a great number of cases. Researchers using this approach believe it is possible to develop a general family theory
Family Systems Theory
A conceptual framework that views everything that happens to any family member as having an impact on everyone else in the family, because family members are interconnected and operate as a group, or family system
Family System
One of the four major components of the sociocultural context in which families live; focuses on the interconnectedness of family members
General Systems Theory
A set of principles and cncepts that can be applied to all types of systems, living and nonliving
System
A set of interconnected components that form a whole; what happens to one component affects all the other components
Multiple System Levels
General systems theory holds that systems are embedded within other systems, layer upon layer
Suprasystem
In the general systems theory, a large system that incorporates smaler subsystems
Subsystem
In the general systems theory, a small system that is part of a larger suprasystem
Boundaries
The lines that both separate systems from and connect systems to each other. The notion of a boundary implies a heirarchy of interconnected systems, each larger than the one before it
Ecology
The study of how all the organisms in a system relate to one another
Human Ecosystem
A model showing how various human subsystems interelate among each other. To really understand a specific family system, one also needs to consider the various system levels it influences and that influence it
Wholeness
A characteristic of systems; general systems theorists believe that the whole is more that the sum of its parts
Interdependence of parts
A characteristic of systems; the parts or elements of a system are interconnected in such a way that if one part is changes, other parts are automatically affected
Open system
A family system that is open to growth and change; also called a morphogenic system
Morphogenic system
A system that is open to growth and change; also called an open system
Closed System
A family system that has the capacity to maintain the status quo and avoids change; also called morphostatic system
Morphostatic System
A family system that has the capacity to maintain the status quo and avoids change; also called the closed system
Centrifugal Interaction
Behvior that pushes system components away from one another, decreasing the system's connectedness
Centripetal Interaction
Behavior that pulls system components toward one another, resulting in the system's increasing connectedness
Positive Feedback
Information or communication that is intended to create change in a system
Negative Feedback
Information or communication that is inteded to minimize change in a system
Family Strengths Framework
A conceptual framework proposing that if researchers study only family problems, they will find only problems in families, but that if they are interested in family strengths, they must study strong families; identifies 6 qualities that strong families commonly demonstrate: commitment, appreaciation and affection, positive communication, enjoyable time together, spiritual well being, and the ability to manage stress and crisis well
Appreciation and Affection
One of the 6 major qualities identified by researchers working within the family strengths framework
Commitment
Attachment to another. One of the 6 major qualities identified by researchers within the familie strengths framework
POsitive Communication
One of the 6 major qualities identified by the family strengths framework
Expressive Role
According to Parson and Bale's model of the modern family, the wife-mother's role -- caring for the emotional well-being of the family, provideing urturing and comfort
Cohesion
The togetherness or closeness of a family; one of the 3 dimensions of the Couple and Family Map
Personification
The belief that everything one's partner does is a reflection on oneself; leads to attempts to control the partner's behavior
Family Development Framework
A conceptual framework that focuses on how family mebers deal with roles and developmental tasks within the family unit as they move through the stages of the life cycle
Symbolic Interaction Framework
A conceptual framework that focuses on the internal perceptions of family members and examines how they learn roles and rules in society through interaction and shared meaning
Role
The expected behavior of a person or group in a given social category; such as husband, wife, supervisor, or teacher
Role Taking
THe process whereby people learn how to play role correctly by practicing and getting feedback from others
Role Making
The process of creating new roles or revising existing roles
Definition of the situation
The concept that a situation is based on a person's subjective interpretaion; hence, people can have different views of the same situation
Looking-glass self
The idea that you learn about yourself based on the feedback you receive from others
Social Construction Framework
Proposes that human beings are profoundly immersed in the social world and that our understanding of this world and beliefs about this world are social products
Postmodernism
A belief system that emphasizes multiple perspectives or "truths." Postmoderists are extremely skeptical in regard to questions of truth, meaning, and historical interpretation. No objective, universal truth can be seen, once and for all, and readily agreed upon. Instead, there is only a collection of subjective truths shaped by the particular subcultures in which we live. These multiple subjective truths are constantly competing for our attention and allegiance
Feminist Framwork
Emphasizes the value of women's perspectives on society and the family, that recognizes women's subordination, and that promotes change in that status
Gender
The learned characteristics and behaviors associated with biological sex in a particular culture
Instrumental Role
According to PArson and Bales's model of the modern family, the husband-father's role -- being the breadwinner, the manager, and the leader of the family
Flexibility
A familiy's ability to change and adapt in the face of stress and crisis; one of the 3 dimensions of the Couple and Family Map
Couple and Family Map
A graphic representation of dynamic relationships within families, comprising 3 central dimentions: cohesion, flexibility, and communication
Balanced Families
Families who fit into the 4 central categories of the Couple and Family Map: families who are flexibly conected, flexibly cohesive, structurally connected, or structurally cohesive
Mid-Range Families
Families who are extreme on one dimension of the Couple and Family Map but balanced on the other dimension. There are 8 mid-range familiy types
Unbalanced Families
Families who fall at thge extremes on both flexibility and cohesion dimensions of the COuple and Family Map; chaotically enmeshed, chaotically disengaged, rigidly enmeshed, or rigidly disengaged
Communication
The way humans create and share meaning, both verbally and nonverbally; the foundation for developing and maintaining human relationships, especially intimate relationships
Linear Causality Model
An interpersonal communication model that assumes a direct, or linear, relationship between cause and effect
Circular Causality Model
An interpersonal communication model that describes an interaction pattern in which both parties view their behavior as a reaction to the other's behavior rather than as something for which they are each reponsible. The first person sends out a message that causes a change in and a response from the second person. That response causes a new response in the first person, whose response initiates another response from the second person, and so on. This type of communication cycle can escalate into conflict
Nonverbal Communication
The communication of emotions by means other than words, such as touch, body movement, facial expression, and eye contact
Mixed Message
A message in which there is a discrepancy between the verbal and the nonverbal components. The receiver hears one thing but simultaneously feels something else
Double Bind
A situation in which the message relayed by the speaker calls into question the type of relationship the receiver has with the speakerq
Metacommunication
Communicating about communicating
Self-Disclosure
Revealing to another person personal information or feelings that that individual could not otherwise learn
Persuasive Listening
A style of listening in which the "listener" is looking only for an oppourtunity to take over and control the diredtion of the conversation
Directive Listening
A style of listening in which the listener attempts to control the direction of the conversation through the use of questions
Attentive Listening
A style of listening focused on fully understanding the speaker's point of view; characterized by encouragement rather than trying to direct or control the speaker
Assertive Communication
A style of interpersonal communication that involves expressing one's self-interests and wishes without degrading or putting down the other person
Passive Communication
A style of interpersonal communication characterized by an unwillingness to say what one thinks, feels, or wants
Aggressive Communication
A style of interpersonal communication that attempts to hurt or put down the receiver while protecting the aggressor's self-esteem
Assertiveness
A person's ability to express her or his feelings and desires
Self-Confidence
A measure of how a person feels about herself or himself and the ability to control things in her or his life
Avoidance
A person's tendency to minimize issues and a reluctance to deal with issues directly
Partner Dominance
The degree to which a person feels her or his partner tries to be controlling and dominant in their relationship
Pursuer
An individual who wants a very high degree of togetherness and expression of feelings in a relationship
Distancer
An individual who 1. wants emotional space when stress is high 2. is self-reliant rather than a help-seeker, and 3. values privacy
Dance of Anger
Lerner's metaphor to describe styles of managing anger and ways in which these styles interact
Underfunctioner
An individual who is too highly flexible and disorganized and becomes less competent under stress
Overfunctioner
An individual who knows what is best not only for herself or himself but for everybody else as well; they cannot let others solve their problems themselvesq
Blamer
A person whose style of anger management is characterized by a short tempers, emotionally intense responses to strewss, and the belief that others are responsible for his or her feelings and problems
Gunnysacking
An alienating fighting tactic in hich a person saves up unresolved grievances until he or she explodes, resulting in a major confrontation
Passive-Aggressie Behavior
Feigning agreement or acting as if everything is okay but later becoming hostile aggressive; an indirect way of expressing anger
Incongruity Humor
Humor that points out things in life that don't fit together logically; a tool for couples and families who was to "fight fair"
Closure
The resolution of an issue
Competitive Style
A style of conflict resolution characterized by aggression, lack of cooperation, pursuit of personal concerns at the expense of the other, and the desire to "win" at all costs
Collaborative Style
A style of conflict resolution characterized by a high degree of assertiveness about reaching one's own goals coupled with a concern for the other person
Compromise Style
A style of conflict resolution characterized by a willingness to give up something to resolve an issue
Avoidance Style
A style of conflict resolution characerized by nonassertive and passive behavior; avoiders often withdraw from the conflict or change the subject
Accommodating Style
A style of conflict resolution characterized by nonassertive but cooperative behavior; accommodaters subjugate their own wants and needs to those of others
Brainstorming
A conflict-resolution strategy that involves thinking of as many solutions to a problem as possible.
Quid pro quo
A strategy for negotiating differences in which one person agrees to do something in exchange for the other person's agreement to do something else of equal value or importance; "this for that"
Quid pro quid
A strategy for negotiating differences in which one person gets to do what he or she wants in exchange for doing something another person requests; "this for that"
Agreeing to Disagree
A negotiating strategy in which two people are unable to agree on opposing courses of action and decide to take neither course of action