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8 Cards in this Set

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Review the impact of both public health and clinical preventive services over the last
century giving examples of measures that resulted in major reductions of the overall
mortality rate.
Discuss with students decrease in morbidity and mortality resulting from safe water, sanitation, immunizations, occupational safety, food safety, consumer product safety, building codes, motor vehicle safety (safer cars and better roads), etc.
What variable can change the PPV?
prevalence
Combinations of risk factors and clinical findings in primary care allows you to have a high ___.
PPV

(Illustrate this by Venn diagrams of overlapping circles, e.g., cough+weight loss+foreign birth)
Define primary prevention and give an example.
disease agent not (yet) present in host (e.g., condoms, tetanus
vaccination)
Define secondary prevention and give an example.
Secondary: agent present, but “disease” is pre-clinical (e.g., Pap screening or
INH preventive treatment of latent TB (those with +PPD, i.e., persons who are
infected but not ill.)
Define tertiary prevention and give an example.
Tertiary: clinical disease is present; aim of tertiary prevention is to prevent (or reverse) progression (e.g. LEEP, post-MI aspirin, or 4-drug therapy of active,
infectious TB)
List three major types of source (“expert panels”) of clinical prevention guidelines.
1. US Preventive Services Task Force
2. CDC
3. Medical specialty groups (e.g. American Academy of Family Physicians, American
College of Physicians [ACP], and others)
 Disease-specific public voluntary agencies (American Cancer Society, American
Heart Association, American Lung Association)
What are the 3 major methods of clincal prevention?
Counseling (behavioral change/lifestyle), Screening, Immunization/chemoprophylaxis