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97 Cards in this Set

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What ages have the lowest death rate?
5-14
What are the leading cause of death in children older than one year?
Injuries - MVA, drowning, burns, poisoning, firearms
Family centered care
Recognizes the family as the constant in a child's life
Systems must support, respect, encourage, and enhance the strength and competence of the family
Needs of all family members must be addressed
Family centered care has 2 concepts:
Concept of enabling - creating opportunities
Concept of empowerment - giving them sense of control, enhancing their strengths
Evidence Based Practice
Implies questioning why something works
Is there another or better approach?
Analyzing and translating research into the actual daily practice of nursing
Family systems theory is derived from...
general systems theory
The systems theory is derived from...
physics and biology
Systems theory encourages nurses to...
see clients as participating members of a family
Systems theories emphasizes...
on the whole rather than on individuals
In family systems theory the family is viewed as a sytstem that...
continually interacts with its members and the environment
What is viewed as the source of the problem in the family systems theory?
Interactions, rather than individual members
(Problem does not rest solely with the parent or child but in the type of interactions between the parent and child)
In which theory is the family viewed as a whole that is different from the sum of the individual members?
Family systems theory
A closed family views change as...
threatening
Family stress theory explains...
how families react to stressful events and sugests factors that promote adaptation to these events
Structural-functional theory focuses on...
the integration between family members and society
In the structural-functional theory, family is described as...
a social system with members who have specific roles and function
From a structural-functional viewpoint, the family's major goal is...
socialization of its members
Traditional nuclear family
Married couple and their biologic children (no stepchildren, half-siblings, etc.)
Nuclear family
-Two parents and their children
-Parent-child relationship may be biologic, step, adoptive, or foster
Blended family
At least one stepparent, stepsibling, or half-sibling.
Extended family
At least one parent, one or more children, and one or more members other than a parent or sibling
Binuclear family
Parents continue the parenting role while terminating the spousal unit.
-Joint custody
Polygamous family
Addition of spouses
Communal family
Communal groups share common ownership of property and goods
No consanguineous tie between units
Mother-child tie is strong during infancy and early childhood, but many parents relinquish older children to the care of others
Parental roles are typically learned through...
one's own mother & father
Role learning occurs through...
socialization on an ongoing process.
Ascribed roles
Those that are strictly defined by culture
Little deviation allowed in modifying them
Apply to general traits such as sex, age, social class, ethnic origin
Achieved roles
Acquired through effort
Include educational, occupational, religious, recreational roles
Adopted roles
Sometimes transient, such as the role of patient or traveler
Become fixed into what are known as character roles
Roles such as leader, follower, clown, show-off
Assumed roles
Related to fantasy
Playing house
Authoritarian/dictorial parents
try to control their children's behavior and attitudes through mandates
Value and reward obedience
Forcefully punish any behavior contrary to parental standards
Permissive/laissez-faire parents
Exert little or no control over their children's actions
Authoritative parents
combine practices from authoritarian and permissive
Emphasize reason for rules and negatively reinforce deviations
Chromosome disorders result from...
Duplication of genetic material (polygenetic)
Loss of genetic material (monogenetic)
Structural abnormalities usually result from...
An error in cell division in sperm or ovum (parents are normal)
The suffix for chromosome disorders...
somy
Cri du chat syndrome
Moon shaped face, wide-spaced eyes
Profound mental retardation
Loss of the small arm of chromosome B5
Fragile X syndrome
the X chromosome displays breaks and gaps
X-linked dominant
More common in males
Mental retardation, elongated face, long elflike ears
Trisomy G21 (down syndrome)
Most common aneuploidy
Usually sterile
Klinefelter syndrome
Most common of all sex chromosome aneuplodies
Multiple X and one Y
Gynecomastia, hypogonadism,, elongated lower limbs
Jacobs syndrome
XYY
Increased tendency toward agression
Turner syndrome
Growth slows
Nondisjunction
Failure of a pair of chromosomes to separate at meiosis
Causes one daughter cell to have two chromosomes and the other to have none
Mosaicism
Presence of two or more chromosomally distinct cell lines in the same individual
Translocation
Alteration of a chromosome by transfer of a portion of it either to another chromosome or to another portion of the same chromosome
No ultimate loss or gain or genetic material - carriers
Autosomal recessive
Nn - carriers
NN - normal
nn - affected
X linked recessive
Affected individuals are usually amles
All carrier females are normal
All affected males have symptoms of the disorder
Males are not carriers
Anueploidy
Abnormal chromosome pattern in which the total number of chromosomes is not a multiple of the haploid number (23)
Most common - trisomies (down syndrome)
The multinational effort to map human genes is termed the...
human genome project
The observation that some genetic disorders are congenital whereas others are expressed later in life has led to the conclusion that many diseased are caused by a...
genetic predisposition that can be activated by an environmental trigger
A nonrandom pattern of malformations for which a caused has not been determined is called an...
association
A chromosome deletion occurs when...
Chromosome breakage results in loss of the broken fragment
Translocation occurs when...
A chromosome fragement reunites with another, nonhomologous chromosome
Fragile X syndrome is...
an x linked dominant condition characterized by mental retardation and a typical facial appearance with an elongated face and long, elflike ears
A sex chromosome abnormality characterized by multiple X and one Y chromosome, decreased masculinization, hypogonadism, and elongated lower extremities is...
Klinefelter syndrome
It is estimated that each person carries from __ to __ genes for a severe recessive disease
3 to 8
What is amniocentesis?
The basis of diagnostic prenatal testing and is usually performed at 14-16 weeks of gestation under ultrasound guidance
Neonate
First 28 days
Infant
1 month-12 month
Toddler
When they can walk
Become very concerned when perimeters in Denver II fall below...
5%
Find pulse where on children?
Apical on all children under 1 year for 1 full minute
Infants use which muscles to breath?
Abdominal
Ringworm
tinea corpis
Soft spots
anterior antonelles
If an infant's palate is not being well formed, they are at risk for...
aspiration
Begin to develop scoliosis after age...
10
Newborn reflexes
Rooting: 3-4 months
Sucking: 10-12 months
Palmar grasp: 3-4 months
Plantar grasp: 8-10 months
Tonic neck: 4-6 months
Moro (startle): 3 months
Babinksi: 2 years
Stepping reflex: 2 months
Infant exam - what do you examine first and last?
Start with heart and lung sounds, finish with ear and throat exam
Adolescent exam - HEADS
home life
education
alcohol
drugs
sexual activity/suicide
When can you begin taking oral temp?
5-6 years
Pulse will be increased with:
Crying, anxiety, fever, pain
Pulse rates:
Neonate: 70-190
1 year: 80-160
2 year: 80-130
4 year: 80-120
6 year: 75-115
10 year:70-110
14 year: 65-105
18 year: 55-95
Heart sound areas:
Aortic, pulmonic, erb's point, tricuspid, apical
Respiratory rates:
Pre-term: 40-60
Newborn: 30-40
Toddler: 25
School age: 20
Adolescent: 16
Panic respiratory rates:
<10, >60
Blood pressure fit:
2/3 width, 100% length
If transmitted cuff pressure is less than manometer pressure:
Falsely high BP
If transmitted cuff pressure is more than manometer pressure:
Falsely low BP
Deviation of heigh on either extreme may be indicative of:
endocrine problems
Newborn may lose how much weight in first 3-4 days?
10%
Weight norms:
Double birth weight by 5-6 months
Triple birth weight by 1 year
When can children begin eating solid foods?
4-6 months
Most common nutritional problems:
Iron deficiency anemia
Obesity
Anorexia
Head circumference is measured...
By wrapping paper tape over eyebrows and around occipital prominence
Head needs to be measured until...
2 years
When do the fontanelles close?
Anterior: 12-18 months
Posterior: 2-5 months
No teeth eruption by 12 months could be due to...
endocrine disorder
Conjuncitivitis in the newborn could be due to..
STD
What is the most common reason children come to pediatrician or E.R?
Otitis media
Effusion means..
fluid collection
Ear infection can lead to...
Rupture of ear drum
Retractions can be...
Subcostal
Intercostal
Sub-sternal
Supra-clavicular
Wheezes occur when...
air flows rapidly through bronchi that are narrowed nearly to the point of closure
Stridor
Inspiratory wheeze
Inflammation of upper airway
When assessing bowel sounds, do what first?
Inspection and auscultation
Bowel sounds normally occur every...seconds
10-30