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15 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Categories of intrinsic risk factors
1)Age-related physiologic changes
2)Chronic diseases
3)Acute diseases
4)Medications
Age-related physiologic changes
1)sensory
-decreased visual acuity
2)musculoskeletal
-decline in muscle strength
3)Gait
Chronic diseases
1)visual
-cataracts,glaucoma
2)musculoskeletal
-osteoarthritis, neuropathies
3)neurological
-CVA,dementia,parkinson's
4)cardiovascular
-orthostatic hypotension, recurrent syncope
5)anxiety and depression
Acute diseases
1)CVA
2)MI
3)Seizures
4)febrile conditions
Medications
1)reduce alertness or retard central processing
2)impair cerebral perfusion
3)induce extrapyramidal effects
1)analgesics, psychoactives
2)antihypertensives, antiarrhythmics,diuretics
3)phenothiazines
Categories of extrinsic risk factors
1)physical environment
2)ambulation devices
3)footwear
physical environment examples
1)environmental clutter
2)lack of grab bars/rails
3)armless chairs and low toilet seats
Up and Go Test
1)get out of standard armchair, walk 3 mters turn, walk back to chair and sit down
2)<10s is freely mobile, <20s is mostly independent
Items measured in the Morse Fall scale
1)hx of falling; immediate or w/in 3 months
2)secondary diagnosis
3)ambulatory aid
4)IV/Heparin Lock
5)Gait
6)mental status
Fall assessment
1)circumstances of fall
-"SPLATT" (symptoms, previous falls, location, activity, time, trauma)
2)medical problems
3)medications
4)physical examination
-BP, mental status, vision, cardiac, neurologic, musculoskeletal, podiatry
5)lab and imaging studies
-CBC, electrolytes, BUN, Cr, CT/MRI
Complications of falls
1)phsyical injury
-distal forearm fracture
-musculoskeletal injuries
-hip fractures
-head trauma
2)long lies
-dehydration, pressure sores, rhabdomyolysis
3)restricted activity
4)psychological effects
5)health care costs
Medical strategies in management of falls
1)treat concomitant medical problems
2)d/c inappropriate meds
3)calcium/vit D supplement
4)d/c excessive alcohol use
Rehabilitative strategies
1)exercise
-strengthen muscle groups
2)ambulation devices
-canes, walkers, wheelchairs
3)consultants
-PT, podiatric service, Ophthalmic exam
Environmental Strategies
1)home safety checklists
2)unobstructed pathways
3)bed supports and bed rails
4)lighting sources and access
Behavioral/Psychosocial strategies
1)patient education
2)social service referral
3)increase person's confidence
4)increase person's independence