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43 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
slow, writhing movements, especially of fingers.
athetosis (snakelike)
sudden, wild flailing of 1 arm.
chorea and athetosis are due to lesions where?
basal ganglia
hemiballismus is due to lesions where?
contralateral subthalamic nucleus (loss of inhibition of thalamus through GP)
nonfluent aphasia with intact comprehension. affects inf frontal gyrus
fluent aphasia with impaired comprehension. affects superior temporal gyrus.
Most common cause of dementia in elderly.
Associated with senile plaques and neurofibrillary tangles.
Familial form (10%) of Alzheimer's is associated with genes on _____
Chr 1,14,19 (APOE4 allele) and 21 (p-App gene)
2nd most common cause of dementia in elderly
multi-infarct dementia
dementia, aphasia, parkinsonian aspects
Pick's disease
Pick's disease is specific for which lobes
frontal and temporal lobes
AD inheritance, chorea, dementia. Atrophy of caudate nucleus (loss of GABAergic neurons)
Huntington's disease
Associated with Lewy bodies and depigmentation of SNc. Rare cases linked to MPTP.
Parkinson's disease
What NT are loss in Huntington's?
CAG - Caudate loses ACh and GABA
Associated with both LMN and UMN signs w/o sensory loss
floppy baby, tongue fasciculations, degeneration of ant horns
Werdnig-Hoffmann disease
LMN signs, degeneration of ant horns.
polio is transmitted by ___ route; replicates in ____; destroys cells in ____, leading to ____
fecal-oral; oropharynx, small intestine; anterior horn of spinal cord; LMN destruction
signs of LMN lesions
muscle weakness and atrophy, fasciculations, fibrillation, hyporeflexia
name 5 demyelinating diseases
MS, PML, acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, metachromatic leukodystrophy, guillain-Barre syndrome
classic triad of MS
Scanning speech
Intention tremor
periventricular plaques with preservation fo axons
presents with optic neuritis (sudden loss of vision), MLF syndrome (internuclear ophthalmoplegia), hemiparesis, hemisensory sxs, or bladder/bowel incontinence
inflammation and demyelination of peripheral nervers and motor fibers of ventral roots, causing symmetric ascending muscle weakness beginning in distal lower extremities.
Guillain-Barre syndrome
What may be severely affected in Guillain-barre syndrome?
autonomic function (cardiac irregularities, hypertension, hypotension)
describe the 2 partial seizures
simple partial (consciousness intact); complex partial (impaired consciousness)
describe the 5 generalized seizures
absence (petit mal) - blank stare
myoclonic - quick, repetitive jerks
tonic-clonic (grand mal) - alternating stiffening and movement
tonic - stiffening
atonic - drop seizures
#1 cause of seizures in: children, adults, elderly
congenital, tumors, stroke
rupture of middle meningeal artery, often 2^ to fracture of temporal bone.
epidural hematoma
rupture of bridging veins. Seen in elderly, alcoholics, brunt trauma, shaken baby
subdural hematoma
rupture of an aneurysm or an AVM. "worst headache" of my life.
subarachnoid hemorrhage
caused by hypertension, amyloid angiopathy, dm, and tumor
parenchymal hematoma
most common site of berry aneurysms
anterior communicating artery
berry aneurysms associated with:
APKD, Ehlers-Danlos, Marfan's.
majority of adult 1^ tumors are ___; while majority of childhood 1^ tumors are ___
supratentorial; infratentorial
half of adult brain tumors are __-
Most common 1^ brain tumor. <1 year life expectancy. Found in cerebral hemispheres. Can cross corpus callosum. Pseudopalisading tumor cells.
Glioblastoma multiforme.
2nd most common 1^ brain tumor. occurs in convexities of hemispheres and parasagittal region. whorled pattern and psammoma bodies.
3rd most common 1^ brain tumor. often localized to 8th nerve
fried egg cells
tumor arising from rathke's pouch. may secrete prolactin, may lead to bitemporal hemianopia
pituitary adenoma
65yo HIV+ man with involuntary flinging movements of right arm and leg. Where is lesion?
Left subthalamic nucleus
> MRI: ring-enhancing lesion (toxoplasmosis) in STN <
35yo man with occasional irregular jerking movements of head, trunk, limbs with occasional stumbling. He has become more argumentative.

Where is lesion? What would be seen on imaging?
Huntington's disease (striatum involvement, limbic pathway affected)
Imaging: Enlarged lateral ventricles (caudate atrophy)