• Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/110

Click to flip

110 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Pt presents with decreased pain and temperature sensation over lateral aspects of both arms. What is the lesion?
Syringomyelia
Penlight in p's R eye produces bilateral pupillary constriction. When moved to the L eye, there is paradoxical dilatation. What is the defect?
Atrophy of the optic nerve
Pt describes a decreased prick sensation on the lateral aspect of her leg and foot. A deficit in what muscular action can also be expected?
Dorsoflexion and eversion of foot (common peroneal nerve)
Elderly woman presents with arthritis and tingling over the lateral digits of her R hand. What is the diagnosis?
Carpal tunnel syndrome, median nerve compression
20 year-old dancer reports decreased plantar flexion and decreased sensation over the back of her thigh, calf, and lateral half of her foot. What spinal nerve is involved?
Tibial (L4-S3)
Woman involved in a motor vehicle accident cannot turn her head to the L and has right shoulder droop. What structure is damaged?
R CN XI (runs through the jugular foramen with IX and X); innervates the sternocleidomastoids and trapezius muscles
Man presents with one wild, flailing arm. Where is the lesion?
Contralateral subthalamic nucleus -- hemiballismus
Pt with a cortical lesion does not know that he has a disease. Where is the lesion?
R parietal lobe
Pt cannot protrude tongue toward L side and has R-sided spastic paralysis. Where is the lesion?
Left medulla, CN XII
Teen falls while rollerblading and hurts his elbow. He can't feel the medial part of his palm. Which nerve and what injury?
ulnar nerve due to broken medial condyle
Pt cannot blink high right eye or seal his lips and has mild ptosis on the right side. What is the diagnosis and which nerve is affected?
Bell's palsy, CN VII
Field hockey player presents to the ER after falling on her arm during practice. X ray shows midshaft break of hte humerous. Which nerve and artery are most likely damaged?
radial nerve and deep brachial artery, which run together
Pt complains of pain, numbness and a tingling sensation. On exam, she has wasting of the thenar eminence. What is the diagnosis and what nerve is often affected?
Carpal tunnel syndrome, median nerve
Woman presents with headache, visual disturbance, galactorrhea, and amenorrhea. What is the diagnosis?
Prolactinoma
43-year-old man experiences dizziness and tinnitus. CT shows enlarged internal acoustic meatus. What is the diagnoses?
Schwannoma
25-year-old female presents with sudden uniocular vision lass and slightly slurred speech. She has a history of weakness and parasthesias that have resolved. What is the diagnosis?
MS
10-year-old child "spaces out" in class (e.g., stops talking midsentence and then continues as if nothing had happened). During spells, there is a slight quivering of lips. What is the diagnosis?
Absence seizures
What is the role of astrocytes?
physical support, repair, K metabolism, help maintain the BBB. Astrocyte marker: GFAP
What is the role of ependymal cells?
inner lining of ventricles
What is the role of microglia?
phagocytosis
What is the role of oligodendroglia?
central myelin production; can myelinate up to 30 CNS axons
What is the role of Schwann cells?
peripheral myelin production; each Schwann only myelinates one peripheral axon
Where do microglia originate from?
Like all macrophages, microglia arise from the mesoderm. All other CNS/PNS supportive cells originate in the ectoderm.
What is the most abundant glial cell in white matter?
oligodendroglia
Which sensory corpuscle is involved in light discriminatory touch of glabrous (hairless) skin?
Meissner's
Which sensory corpuscle is involved in pressure, coarse touch, vibration and tension?
Pacinian
Which sensory corpuscle is involved in light, crude touch of finger tips, hair follicles and hard palate?
Merkel's
The cochlea, vestibule and semicircular canals is filled with what Na-rich fluid?
Perilymph (peri - think outside of the cell, Na)
The cochlear duct, utricle, saccule, and semicircular canals have tubes filled with what K-rich fluid?
endolymph (think inside the cell, K)
Which ear structures detect linear acceleration?
Utricle and saccule; contain maculae
Which structures in the ear detect angular acceleration?
Semicircular canals (contain ampullae; ampullae/angle)
Which area of the cochlea detects high-frequency sound?
base (narrow and stiff)
Which area of the cochlea detects low-frequency sound?
apex (wide and flexible)
What 3 structures form the BBB?
1. tight jnxns between nonfenestrated capillary endothelial cells
2. astrocyte processes
3. basement membrane
Vasogenic edem is caused by what pathopysiology?
infarction leading to destroyed endothelial cells
What cells cross the BBB more easily?
nonpolar, lipid-soluble substances
What are the main fnxns of the hypothalamus?
TAN HATS
-Thirst and water balance
-Adenohypophysis control via releasing factors
-Neurohypophysis and median eminence relase hormones synthesized in hypothalamic nuclei
-Hunger and satiety
-Autonomic regulation; circadian rhythyms
-temperature regulation
-Sexual urges and emotions (Septal nucleus)
What are the two hormones released by the posterior pituitary?
ADH and oxytocin
What thalamic nuclei relays visual information?
Lateral Geniculate Nucleus (LGN = light)
What thalamic nuclei relays auditory information?
Medial geniculate nucleus (MGN = music)
What thalamic nuclei relays body sensation?
Ventral posterior nucleus, lateral part (VPL)
What thalamic nuclei relays facial sensation?
Ventral posterior nucleus, medial part (VPM)
What thalamic nuclei relays motor information?
Ventral anterior/lateral (VA/VL)
What is the fnxn of the limbic system?
Famous 5 F's
-Feeding
-Fighting
-Feeling
-Flight
-Sex
What are the structures and what is the fnxn of the Basal ganglia?
Substantia nigra
Globus pallidus (externus and internus)
subthalamic nucleus
D1 and D2 receptors

Fnxn in voluntary movements and making postural adjustments
What disease is the result of decreasing input from the substantial nigra?
Parkinson's
What are the fnxns of the frontal lobe?
Executive fnxns: planning, inhibition, concentration, orientation, language, abstraction, judgement, mood,motor regulation
The anterior cerebral artery supplies what area(s) of the brain?
medial surface of the brain; leg-foot area of motor and sensory cortices.
The middle cerebral artery supplies what area(s) of the brain?
lateral aspect of the brain, trunk-arm-face area of motor and sensory cortices, Broca's and Wernicke's speech area
The posterior communicating artery supplies what area(s) of the brain?
common area of anneurysm; causes CN III palsy
The anterior communicating artery supplies what area(s) of the brain?
most common site of Circle of Willis anneurysm; lesions may cause visual-field defects
The Lateral striate arteries supply what area(s) of the brain?
divisions of the middle cerebral artery; arteries of stroke; supply internal capsule, caudate, putamen, globus pallidus
What are the signs of an anterior circle stroke?
general sensory and motor dysfunction, aphasia
What are the signs of a posterior circle stroke?
cranial nerve deficits (vertigo, visual deficits), coma, cerebellar deficits (ataxia)
What connects the lateral ventricle to the third ventricle?
The foramen of Monroe (intraventricular foramen)
What connects the 3rd ventricle to the 4th ventricle?
cerebral aqueduct (aqueduct of Sylvius)
How does CSF get from the 4th ventricle to the subarachnoid space?
lateral = Foramen of Luschka
medial = Foramen of Magendie
State the locations of neurons and synapses for the dorsal column/medial lemniscus tract?
1st order: DRG, ascends ipsi up spinal cord

1st synapse: nucleus cunneatus (arms) or gracilis (legs)

2nd order: decussates in medulla and ascends contralaterally

2nd synapse: VPL thalamus

3rd order neuron: sensory cortex
State the locations of neurons and synapses for the spinothalamic tract?
1st order: A-delta and C fibers

1st synapse: ipsi grey matter of spinal cord

2nd order: decussates at anterior white commisure, ascends contra

2nd synapse: VPL thalamus

3rd order neuron: sensory cortex
State the locations of neurons and synapses for the lateral corticospinal tract?
Upper motor neuron: 1' motor cortex, descends ipsi until decussates at medullary pyramids

1st synapse: cell body of anterior horn of spinal cord

Lower motor neuron: leaves the spinal cord

2nd synapse: neuromuscular jnxn
What are the 5 nerve roots that comprise the brachial plexus?
C5-8 and T1 (C5-7 branch off the long thoracic)
An injury to the shaft of the humerus will damage which nerve resulting in what motor deficits?
Radial nerve, loss of triceps brachii, brachioradialis and extensor carpi radialis longus
An injury to the supracondyl of the humerus damages which nerve causing what motor deficits?
Median nerve, loss of power in any of the arm muscles, forearm pronation, wrist flexion, finger flexion, thenar atrophy
An injury to the medial epicondyle damages which nerve causing what motor deficits?
Ulnar nerve, impaired wrist flexion and adduction, impaired adduction of the thumb and the ulnar 2 fingers
An injury to the sugical neck of the humerus or anterior shoulder dislocation damages which nerve causing what motor deficits?
Axillary nerve, loss of deltoid aciton
The posterior half of the skull cap is the landmark dermatome for which nerve?
C2
The location of a high turtleneck shirt is the landmark dermatome for which nerve?
C3
The location of the top of a low collar shirt is the landmark dermatome for which nerve?
C4
The nipple is the landmark dermatome for which nerve?
T4 (T4 at the TEAT pore)
The xiphoid process is the landmark dermatome for which nerve?
T7
The umbilicus is the landmark dermatome for which nerve?
T10 (belly butTEN)
The inguinal ligament is the landmark dermatome for which nerve?
L1 (L1 is IL)
The kneecap is the landmark dermatome for which nerve?
L4
Erection and sensation of penile and anal zones is the landmark dermatome for which nerve?
S2, S3, S4 (2,3,4 keep the penis off the floor)
What is the role of muscle spindles in muscle fiber movement?
Muscle spindles monitor muscle length (help you pick up a heavy object when you didn't know how heavy it was)
What is the role of golgi tendon organs in muscle fiber movement?
Golgi tendon organs monitor muscle tension; inhibitory feedback to alph motor neurons (make you drop a heavy object you have been holding too long)
What motor reflex is normal during the first year of life but is pathological in adults?
Babinsky sign - dorsiflexion of the big toe but fanning of the other toes
Provide the name, function and type of nerve for CN I.
Olfactory
Smell
Sensory
Provide the name, function and type of nerve for CN II
Optic
Sight
Sensory
Provide the name, function and type of nerve for CN III
Oculomotor
eye movement, pupil constriction, accomodation, eyelid opening
Motor
Provide the name, function and type of nerve for CN IV
Trochlear
eye movement
Motor
Provide the name, function and type of nerve for CN V
Trigeminal
Mastication, facial sensation
Both
Provide the name, function and type of nerve for CN VI
Abducens
Eye movement (lateral rectus)
Motor
Provide the name, function and type of nerve for CN VII
Facial
Facial movement, taste to anterior 2/3 of tongue, lacrimation, salivation(submaxillary and sublingual glands), eyelid closing
Both
Provide the name, function and type of nerve for CN VIII
Vestibulocochlear
hearing,balance
Sensory
Provide the name, function and type of nerve for CN IX
Glossopharyngeal
Taste from posterior 1/3 of tongue, swallowing, salivation (parotid), monitoring carotid body and sinus chemo- and baroreceptors
Both
Provide the name, function and type of nerve for CN X
Vagus
taste from epiglottic region, swallowing, palate elevation, talking, thoracoabdominal viscera, aortic arch chemo- baroreceptors
Both
Provide the name, function and type of nerve for CN XI
Accessory
head turning, shoulder shrugging
Motor
Provide the name, function and type of nerve for CN XII
Hypoglossal
tongue movement
Motor
Motor cranial nerves are located where in the tegmentum of brainstem?
medial nuclei (motor=medial)
Sensory cranial nerves are located where int he tegmentum of the brainstem?
Lateral nuclei
The Pons is home to which CNs?
V,VI,VII,VIII
The medulla is home to which CNs?
IX, X, XI, XII
The midbrain is home to which CNs?
III, IV
What is the function and which CNs run through the Nucleus Solitarius?
Visceral sensory information (taste, baroreceptors, gut distension)
VII, IX, X (sensory=solitary)
What is the function and which CNs run through the Nucleus ambiguous?
Motor innervation of pharynx, larynx, and upper esophagus (swallowing, palate elevation)
IX, X, XI
What is the function and which CNs run through the Dorsal motor nucleus?
Sends autonomic (parasympathetic) fibers to the heart, lungs, and upper GI
No CNs
CN I runs through which skull structure?
Cribiform plate
Which CN and vessels run through the optic canal?
CNII, opthalmic artery, central retinal vein
Which CN and vessels run through the superior orbital fissure?
CNs III, IV, V(1), VI, opthalmic vein
Which CN and vessels run through the Foramen Rotundum?
CN V(2)
Which CN and vessels run through the Foramen Ovale?
CN V(3)
Which CN and vessels run through the foramen spinosum?
middle meningeal artery
Which CN and vessels run through the internal auditory meatus?
CN VII, VII
Which CN and vessels run through the Jugular foramen?
CNs IX, X, XI, jugular vein
Which CN and vessels run through the hypoglossal canal?
CN XII
Which CN and vessels run through the Foramen Magnum?
spinal roots of CN XI, brainstem, vertebral arteries
What 3 muscles close the jaw?
Masseter, temporalis, Medial
What muscle opens the jaw?
lateral pterygoid
Trace the pupillary light reflex
light in either retina sends a signal via CNII to pretectal nuclei in midbrain that activate Edinger-Westphal nuclei; pupils contract bilaterally--even if light is only in one eye