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57 Cards in this Set

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Epidermal Layers (outer to inner)
Corneum
Lucidum
Granulosum
Spinosum
Basalis

Californians Like Girls in String Bikinis
Cell junction preventing diffusion across paracellular space

composed of claudins and occludins
Zona Occludens (tight junction)
Surrounds perimeter just below zona occludens; cadherins connect to actin
Zona Adherens (intermediate junction)

CADherins are Ca-dependent ADhesion molecules
Small discrete sites of attachment; cadherins connect to intermeidate filaments

contain keratin, desmoplakin
Macula Adherens (desmosome)

paracellular
Site of Pemphigus Vulgaris
Macula Adherens

autoantibodies
Allows adjacent cells to communicate for electric and metabolic functions, connecting with a central channel
Gap Junctions
Connects cells to underlying ECM
Hemidesmosomes
Sites of Bullous Pemphigoid
Hemidesmosomes
Autoantibodies to Hemidesmosomes @ Basolateral surface
Bullous Pemphigoid
Autoantibodies to desmosomes on paracellular surface
Pemphigus vulgaris
maintains integrity of basement membrane; binds to laminin in BM
Integrin (Basolateral membrane)
Unhappy Triad of Knee Injury (O'Donahues?)
ACL
MCL
LATERAL meniscus
site of attachment of ACL on tibia
Anterior
Site of attachment of PCL on tibia
Posterior
abnormal passive abduction of knee indicates
torn MCL
Landmark for pudendal nerve block (to relieve pain of delivery)
Ischial spine
Landmark for appendix
McBurney's point

2/3 of the way from umbilicus to ASIS
Landmark for Lumbar Puncture
Iliac Crest
Muscles of the Rotator Cuff
Supraspinatus
Infraspinatus
teres MINOR
Subscapularis

SItS (small t for minor)
Function of Supraspinatus
abducts arm initially before deltoid
most common rotator cuff injury
Supraspinatus
Infraspinatus function
laterally rotates arm; pitching injury
Teres minor function
adducts and laterally rotates arm
Subscapularis function
Medially rotates and adducts arm
Attach breasts to pectoral region
Coopers Ligaments
Abduction of shoulder sequence
Supraspinatus
Deltoid
Serratus Anterior
Trapezius
Most powerful arm flexor
Brachialis
function of biceps brachii at full arm extension
flexor
function of biceps brachii @ 90 degrees
most powerful supinator
Site in Brachial Plexus of Erb's Palsy
Upper Trunk (C5/C6)
Site in brachial plexus of Klumpke's Palsy
Lower Trunk (C8/T1)
Site in brachial injury of wrist drop
Posterior Chord
or
Radial Nerve
Cervical nerves associated with Long Thoracic
C5-C7
Osteocalcin/ALP are good indicators of
Bone formation
Which bone cells have high levels of ALP
Osteoblasts
Degrading enzymes found in Osteoclasts
Acids for inorganic (acid phosphatase)
Proteases for organic (collagenases)
Color comparision of young and old cartilage
Young cartilage appears pink, old cartilage appears blue
Ossification which occurs in longitudinal bones
Endochondral Ossification
off HYALINE cartilage model @ epiphyseal plates
Osteoblasts derived from
Mesenchymal stem cells
Area of increased osteoblasts @ fracture
Callous
Type of bone formation in flat bones (skull, face, ribs, etc)
Membranous Ossification
no cartilage model
Failure of longitudinal bone growth (endochondral ossification) resulting in short limbs with normally sized torso
Achondroplasia
Inheritance and pathogenesis of Achondroplasia
Autosomal Dominant

constitutive activation of FGFR3 resulting in inactivation of chondrocyte proliferation
Most common bone disorder in US resulting in crush fractures, loss of height, kyphosis
Osteoporosis
Type 1 postmenopausal Osteoporosis mechanism
↑ bone resoprtion due to ↓ estrogen levels
Type 2 Senile Osteoporosis mechanism
affects men and women > 70 years of age
Treatment of Osteoporosis
Estrogen (SERMs)
Bisphosphonates
Calcitonin

pulsatile PTH if severe
Possible causes of Secondary (early) Osteoporosis
Turners
Estrogen ↓
↓ Exercise
↓Nutrition
Cushings, steroids
Thyrotoxicosis
failure of normal bone resorption resulting in thickened dense ones which are prone to fracture
Osteopetrosis (Marble Bone Disease)
Mechanism of Osteopetrosis?
Lab Values?
Defective function of osteoclasts
→Carbonic Anhydrase II defects possible

normal Ca/PO/ALP
Common effects of Osteopetrosis
Erlenmeyer Flask bones (flare out)
CN impingement + defects
*Anemia, thrombocytopenia, infection from ↓marrow space
defective mineralization/calcifaction of osteoid resulting in soft bones resulting from Vitamin D deficiency
Osteomalacia/Rickets
Lab findings in Rickets/Osteomalacia
↓Calcium
↑PTH
↓serum phosphate
Clinical findings in Rickets/Osteomalacia
*Bowed legs
Pectus Carinatum
Knobs @ Costovertebral joints
Blue Sclera
+/-

fractures
deafness
*discolored teeth
Osteogenesis Imperfecta
Pathogenesis of Osteogenesis Imperfecta
no collagen type I

Type 1 is AD, childhood fractures
Type 2 is AR, stillborn with crumpled bones
Abnormal bone architecture caused by ↑ in both osteoblast and osteoclast activity
Paget's Disease