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32 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What kind of drug is Lispro?
short-acting insulin
What kind of drug is NPH?
intermediate-acting insulin
Which diabetic drugs aids TG storage in fats?

What are the toxicities of insulins?
- Hypoglycemia

- Hypersensitivity (rarely)
What is the clinical use of insulins?
- Type I DM

- Also, life-threatening hyperkalemia and stress-induced hyperglycemia
How do diabetic drugs affect muscle?
- Increase glycogen and protein synthesis

- K+ uptake
What is the MOA of sulfonylureas?
Close K+ channels in beta-cell membranes, so cell depolarizes --> triggers insulin release via Ca++ influx.
What diabetic drugs cause disulfuram reaction?
First gen sulfonylureas:

- Tolbutamide
- Chlorpropamide
What is the clinical use of sulfonylureas?
Type II DM
(Requires some beta-cell fxn, so useless in type I DM)
What are the 2nd gen sulfonylureas, and what is their toxicity?
- Glyburide, Glipizide, Glimepiride

- hypoglycemia
What drug is a biguanide and what is its mechanism of action?
- Metformin

- decreases hepatic gluconeogenesis (therefore decreases hepatic glucose output)
What is the clinical use of metformin?
Type I and Type II DM (don't need functioning beta-cells)
What toxicities does metformin have?
Lactic acidosis (most grave SE)
What is the MOA of glitazones?
Incr target cell sensitivity to insulin.
What is the clinical use of glitazones?
Type II DM, or in combo with insulins for Type I DM
What are the toxicities of Proglitazone, Rosiglitazone, and Troglitazone?

Also, which is no longer used and why?
- Weight gain

- Troglitazone causes hepatotox, so no longer used
What class of drugs do acarbose and miglitol belong to, and what is their mech of action?
- alpha-glucosidase inhibitors

- inhibit alpha-glucosidase in intestinal brush border. Delayed sugar hydrolysis and glucose absorption lead to decreased postprandial hyperglycemia.
What is the toxicity of miglitol and acarbose?
GI disturbances.
What two drugs may be used for long-term obesity management?
Orlistat and Sibutrimide
What is the MOA of sibrutrimide?
- Serotonin and NE reuptake inhibitor (sympathomimetic)
What is the MOA of orlistat?
Inhibits pancreatic lipases, therefore altering fat metabolism
What are the toxicities of orlistat?
Steatorrhea, reduce absorption of fat-soluble vitamins, Gi discomfort, headache
What are Propylthiouracil and Methimazole used for and why?
- Hyperthyroidism

- Inhibit organification and coupling of thyroid hormone synthesis. (Propylthiouracil also reduces peripheral conversion of T3 to T4)
What are 3 toxicities of Methimazole and Propylthiouracil?
- Skin rash
- agranulocytosis (rare)
- aplastic anemia
Growth hormone may be used to treat what 2 conditions?
- GH deficiency
- Turner's syndrome
Octeotride may be used to treat what 4 conditions?
- Acromegaly
- carcinoid syndrome
- gastrinoma
- glucagonoma
What 2 things does oxytocin stimulate, and what condition can it treat?
- stimulates labor (uterine contractions) and milk let-down

- controls uterine hemorrhage
What is Desmopressin used for?
central diabetes insipidus

(acts as analog of vasopressin/ADH)
What two drugs could you use to treat myxedema? Also, what else do these drugs treat?
- Levothyroxine, Triiodothyronine

- Hypothyroidism
How do corticosteroids exert their action?
Inhibit phospholipase A2 and expression of COX-2, thereby decreasing production of leukotrienes and prostaglandins.
How do corticosteroids work at the molecular level?
Inactivate NF-kB, a transcription factor that induces transcription of TNFa and other inflammatory mediators.
What are 3 distinct diseases I know of that corticosteroids can treat (besides general immunosuppression)?
- Chronic asthma (1st line!!)
- Addison's disease (adrenal insufficiency)
- Crohn's disease