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45 Cards in this Set

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10's for pheochromocytoma:
10s:
malignant
bilateral
extraadrenal
calcify
kids
familial
5 P's for pheochromocytoma
pain, pallor, palpitations
perspirations
pressure
tx for pheo
phenoxybenzamine
phentolamine
MEN I
pancreas, pituitary, parathyroid
MEN II
med ca of thyroid
pheo
parathyroid
Men III
med ca of thyroid
pheo
oral and intestinal ganglioneuromatosis (mucosal neuromas)
cold intolerance, hypoactivity, wt gain, fatigue, lethargy, dec appetite, constipation, weakness, dec reflexes, myxedema, dry, cool skin, and coarse, brittle hair
hypothyroidism
heat intolerance, hyperactivity, wt loss, chest pain and chest palps, arrhythmias, diarrhea, inc reflexes, warm, moist skin, and fair hair
hyperthyroidism
proptosis, EOM swelling, pretibial myxedema, diffuse goiter
Graves' disease
thyroid replaced by fibrous tissue
Riedel's thyroiditis
Autoimmune d/o --> hypothyroidism. Lymphocytic infiltrate with germinal centers
Hashimoto's thyroiditis
Antimicrosomal Abs and antithyroglobulin Abs
Hashimoto's thyroiditis
self-limited hypothyroidism following a flulike illness
subacute thyroiditis (de Quervain's)
Is the thyroid tender in subacute thyroiditis?
yes (nontender in Hashimoto's thyroiditis)
List the 4 kinds of thyroid cancer in order of most prevalence:
pap ca
follicular ca
medullary ca
anaplastic/undiff
"ground-glass" nuclei, psammoma bodies
pap ca of thyroid
from C cells; produces calcitonin, sheets of cells in amyloid stroma
med ca
causes of cretinism
lack of dietary iodine
defect in T4 formation
Dev. failure of thyroid formation
pot-bellied, pale, puffy-faced child with protruding umbilicus and protuberant tongue
cretinism
large tongue with deep furrows, deep voice, large hands and feet, coarse facial features, impaired glucose tolerance
acromegaly
inc GH in children
gigantism
tx for acromegaly
octreotide
findings in 1^ hyperparathyroidism
bones, stones, groans, moans
Osteitis fibrosa cystica
Renal stone
constipation
psych - confused state
most likely cause of 1^ and 2^ hyperparathyroidism
1^: adenoma
2^: dec Ca due to CRF
bone lesions due to 2^ hyperpara b/c of renal disease
renal osteodystrophy
2 signs of hypoparathyroidism
Chvostek's sign - tap facial nerve --> contraction of facial mm
Trousseau's sign - occlusion of brachial artery with BP cuff leads to carpopedal spasm
hypocalcemia, shortened 4th/5th digits, short stature
pseudohypoparathyroidism (aka Albright's hereditary osteodystrophy) (kidney unresponsive to PTH)
Causes of hypercalcemia
CH(2)IMPANZEES
Ca ingestion
Hyperparathyroidism, hyperthyroidism
Iatrogenic (thiazides)
Multiple myeloma
Paget's disease
addison's disease
neoplasms
Zollinger-Ellison syndrome
Excess Vit D
Excess Vit A
Sarcoidosis
small vessel manifestations of DM
retinopathy, glaucoma, nephropathy
tests for DM
fasting serum glucose, glucose tolerance test, HbA1c
kussmaul respirations (rapid/deep breathing), hyperthermia, n/v, abd pain, dementia, dehydration, fruity breath odor
DKA (Breathe easy...)
tx for DKA
fluids, insulin, and K+; glucose if necessary to prevent hypoglycemia
complications of DKA
mucormycosis, Rhizopus, cerebral edema, arrhythmias, heart failure
causes of DI
lack of ADH (central DI)
lack of renal response to ADH (nephrogenic DI)
tx for central DI
desmopressin (ddavp)
tx for nephrogenic DI (3 possible)
thiazides, indomethacin, amiloride
diarrhea, cutaneous flushing, asthmatic wheezing, right-sided valvular disease
carcinoid syndrome
most common tumor of appendix
carcinoid tumor
carcinoid syndrome has inc ___ in urine
5 HIAA
Carcinoid syndrome not seen if tumor is limited to ___
GI tract (first pass metabolism in liver)
carcinoid tumors secrete high levels of ___ and are gneerally found in the ___
5-HT; small bowel
carcinoid tumors are derived from ___
neuroendocrine cells of GI tract
rule of 1/3 for carcinoid syndrome
1/3 metastasize
1/3 present with 2nd malignancy
1/3 multiple
tx for carcinoid syndrome
octreotide
gastrin secreting tumor of pancreas or duodenum; causes recurrent ulcers
Zollinger-Ellison syndrome