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15 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Branchial apparatus (pharyngeal apparatus) is composed of: ___, ___, ___
clefts, arches, pouches
Clefts (grooves) are derived from ___
ectoderm
Arches are derived from ___
mesoderm and neural crests
Pouches are derived from ____
endoderm
Branchial arch 1 derivatives
Meckel's cartilage: Mandible, Malleus, incus, sphenoMandibular ligament
Muscles: Muscles of mastication, mylohyoid, ant belly of digastric, tensor tympani, tensor veli palatini, ant 2/3 of tongue
Nerve: CN V2, V3
Branchial arch 2 derivatives
Reichert's cartilage: Stapes, Styloid process, lesser horn of hyoid, Stylohyoid ligament
Muscles: muscles of facial expression, Stapedius, Stylohyoid, posterior belly of digastric
Nerve: CN VII
Branchial arch 3 derivatives
Cartilage: greater horn of hyoid
Muscle: stylopharyngeus
Nerve: CN IX
Branchial arches 4-6
Cartilages: thyroid, cricoid, arytenoids, corniculate, cuneiform
Muscles (4th): most pharyngeal constrictors, cricothyroid, levator veli palatini
Muscles (6th): all intrinsic muscles of larynx except cricothyroid
Nerve: 4th - CN X (sup laryngeal br)
6th - CN X (recurrent laryngeal br)
Branchial arch innervation
Arch 1: CN V2, V3
Arch 2: CN VII
Arch 3: CN IX
Arch 4,6: CN X (sup, recurrent laryngeal br)
Tongue development
(arches, sensory, taste, motor)
1st Arch: ant 2/3 (sensory via V3, taste via VII via chorda tympani)
3rd, 4th: post 1/3 (sensory and taste via CN IX, extreme posterior via CN X)

Motor innervation is via CN XII
Branchial cleft derivatives
1st cleft - external auditory meatus
2nd-4th clefts - form temporary cervical sinuses which are obliterated by proliferation of 2nd arch mesenchyme
Persistent cervical sinus can lead to ____ in the neck
branchial cyst
Eardrum arises from
1st branchial membrane
Branchial pouch derivaties:
1st: middle ear cavity, eustachian tube, mastoid air cells
2nd: epithelial lining of palatine tonsil
3rd (dorsal wings): inferior parathyroids
3rd (ventral wings): thymus
4th: superior parathyroids
What syndrome is due to abnormal development of 3rd and 4th pouches?
DiGeorge Syndrome