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62 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Microglia

1) what kind of cell?

2) what layer does it originate from?

3) Response to tissue damage?
Microglia

1) CNS phagocyte

2) Mesoderm origin

3) transform into large ameboid phagocytic cells in response to tissue damage
Astrocyte

1) where is it found

2) fxn?

3) marker?
Astrocyte

1) CNS

2) physical support, repair, K metabolism, help maintain blood-brain barrier

3) marker: GFAP
Ependymal cells

1) where is it found?

2) fxn?
Ependymal cells

1) CNS

2) inner lining of ventricles
Oligodendrocyte

1) where is it found?

2) fxn?

3) what stain do you use and what does it look like?

4) Predominant in white or gray matter?
Oligodendrocytes

1) CNS

2) myelinate CNS axons

3) Nissl stain - look like small nuclei with dark chromatin and little cytoplasm

4) white matter
what cells fuse to form multinucleated giant cells in CNS when infected by HIV
microglia
what cells are destroyed in Multiple Sclerosis
Oligodendrocytes
Schwann cells

1) where are they found

2) what layer are they formed from

3) fxn
Schwann Cells

1) PNS

2) ectoderm

3) myelinate only 1 PNS axon and promote axonal regeneration
what is an example of schwannoma and what CN are involved
acoustic neuroma

CN VII, VIII
what are the peripheral nerve layers?
peripheral nerve layers:

endoneurium - around single nerve fiber

perineurium - permeability barrier

epineurium - surrounds the entire nerve
Meissner's corpuscles

1) where found

2) fxn?
Meissner's

1) small encapsulated nerve endings found in DERMIS OF PALMS, SOLES, DIGITS OF SKIN

2) LIGHT DISCRIMINATORY TOUCH OF GLABROUS (HAIRLESS) SKIN
Pacinian corpuscles

1) where located

2) fxn
Pacinian

1) large encapsulated nerve endings in deeper layers of skin @ LIGAMENTS, JOINT CAPSULES, SEROUS MEMBRANES, MESENTERIES

2) pressure, coarse touch, vibration, tension
Merkel's corpuscle

1) where

2) fxn
Merkel's

1) cup shaped nerve endings in DERMIS OF FINGERTIPS, HAIR FOLLICLES, HARD PALATE

2) light, crude touch
Inner ear

bony labyrinth is made up of?

what is it filled with?
Bony labyrinth

cochlea, vestibule, semicircular canals

perilymph - Na rich
Inner ear

membranous labyrinth is made up of?

what is it filled with?
cochlear duct, utricle, saccule, semicircular canals

endolymph - K rich
Inner ear

hair cell fxn
hair cells

spatial orientation - vestibule

hearing - cochlea
inner ear

where is high frequency sound picked up
high frequency sound is picked up in...

base of cochlea
inner ear

where is low frequency sound picked up
low frequency sound is picked up in.....

apex of cochlea
inner ear - maculae

1) where?

2) fxn?
maculae

1) utricle/saccule

2) detect linear accelaration
inner ear - ampullae

1) where?

2) fxn?
ampullae

1) semicircular canal

2) detect Angular Acceleration
hearing loss in eldery goes from?
high --> low frequency
blood brain barrier

1) formed by?

2) what crosses readily?

3) how do glucose and aa cross

4) where in the brain is there no BBB
BBB

formed by: ENDOTHELIAL CELLS TIGHT JXN, BASEMENT MEMBRANE, ASTROCYTE PROCESSES

2) nonpolar/lipid soluble substances cross readily

3) glucose/aa cross by carrier mediated transport

4) area postrema (vomit after chemo), neurohypophysis (ADH release)
hypothalamus fxn
Hypothalamas wears TAN HATS

Thirst/Water balance (supraoptic nucleus)

Adenohypophysis control - releasing factors

Neurohypophysis - releases hormones synthesized in hypothalamic nuclei

Hunger (anorexia/starvation destroys lateral nucleus)

Autonomic regulation (anterior hypothal regulates parasympathetic; posterior hypothal regulates sympathetic)

Temp regulation (post regulates heat conservation and production when cold; ant coordinates cooling when hot) A/C=ANT/COOLING ; POST POIKILOTHERM

Sexual urges and emotions - Septal nucleus - destruction-> rage)
Post pit

1) receives projections from?

2) secretes?
1)supraoptic (ADH)

2) paraventricular (oxytocin)
Thalamus

1) receive info from?
1) ascending sensory info

Lat geniculate nucleus - visual (LAT FOR LIGHT)

Med geniculate nucleus - auditory (MEDIAL FOR MUSIC)

VPL - body sensation

VPM - facial sensation (CN V)

VA/VL - motor
limbic system fxn?
5 F's

feeding
fighting
feeling
flight
sex
Basal ganglia

1) fxn

2) decreased input from the substantia nigra results in?
1) voluntary movements and making postural adjustments

2) parkinson's disease - like symptoms
frontal lobe fxn
"Executive fxns"

planning, inhibition, concentration, orientation, language, abstraction, judgment, motor regulation, mood, social judgement
Brodmann's premotor area
6
Brodmann's primary motor area
4
Brodmann's primary sensory areas
3,1,2
Brodmann's motor speech area?

what is this area called?
44, 45

Broca's area
Brodmann's primary auditory cortex area?
41, 42
Brodmann's associative auditory cortex area?

what is this area called?
22

Wernicke's
Bordmann's primary visual cortex area
17
Brodmann's frontal eye fields area
8
what supplies medial surface of the brain?

what area of the brain is this?
anterior cerebral artery

leg-foot area of motor and sensory cortex
what supplies the lateral aspect of the brain?

what areas are affected?
middle cerebral artery

trunk-arm-face area of motor/sensory cortex
Broca's area
Wernicke's area
where is the most common circle of Willis aneurysm?

what kind of defects would it cause
anterior communicating artery

visual field defects
where is the most common area of aneurysm?

what kind of defects would it cause
posterior communicating artery

CN III palsy
what division of the middle cerebral artery is called the "arteries of stroke"?

what areas are affected?
lateral striate artery

internal capsule, caudate, putamen, globus pallidus
if you have a stroke in the anterior circle, what symptomatology do you get?
general sensory/motor dysfxn, aphasia
if you have a stroke in the posterior circle, what kind of symptomatology do you get?
CN deficits (vertigo, visual deficit)
coma
cerebellar deficits (ataxia
where are venous sinuses located?
run in dura mater where meningeal and periosteal layers separate
blood supply of veins?
cerebral vein --> venous sinuses --> internal jugular vein
what connects the lateral ventricle to the 3rd ventricle
foramen of Monro
what connects the 3rd and 4th ventricle
aqueduct of Sylvius
what connects the 4th ventricle to the subarachnoid space
Foramina of Luschka (lateral)

Foramina of Magendie (medial)
where does vertebral disk herniation usu occur
btw L5, S1
at what level do you go to get a CSF sample from the lumbars?
L4/L5
what connects the lateral ventricle to the 3rd ventricle
foramen of Monro
what connects the 3rd and 4th ventricle
aqueduct of Sylvius
what connects the 4th ventricle to the subarachnoid space
Foramina of Luschka (lateral)

Foramina of Magendie (medial)
where does vertebral disk herniation usu occur
btw L5, S1
at what level do you go to get a CSF sample from the lumbars?
L3/L4

L4/L5
at what level does the spinal cord end?
L1/L2
at what level does the subarachnoid space end
S2
what structure do you not pierce through when doing lumbar punctures
pia
cuneate fasciculus affects what part of body
upper body, extremities

pressure, vibration, touch, proprioception
gracilis fasciculus affects what part of the body
lower body, extremities

pressure, vibration, touch, proprioception
lateral corticospinal tract is responsible for what
voluntary motor movements
spinothalamic tract is responsible for what
pain and temperature
what 2 fascicles make up the dorsal column
cuneate - arms

gracilis - legs