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6 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Na+
Low: Disorientation, stupor, coma. High: irritability, delirium, and coma.
Cl-
Low: Secondary to metabolic alkalosis, hypokalemia, hypovolemia, high aldosterone. High: Secondary to non-anion gap acidosis.
K+
Low: U waves on ECG, flattened T waves, arrhythmias, paralysis. High: peaked T waves, wide QRS, arrhythmias.
Ca2+
Low: Tetany, neuromuscular irritability. High: delirium, renal stones, abdominal pain, not necessarily calciuria.
Mg2+
Low: Neuromuscular irritability, arrhythmias. High: delirium, decreased deep tendon reflexes, cardiopulmonary arrest.
PO4 3-
Low: bone loss, osteomalacia. High: renal stones, metastatic calcifications.