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60 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
visual focusing from a far to a near point as pupils constrict and eyes converge
permanent loss of visual acuity resulting from certain uncorrected medical condition
difference in pupil sizes
anterior chamber
space anterior to the pupil and iris
arcus senilis
hazy gray ring about 2mm in size and located just inside the limbus; Most Commonly found in older patients
inflammation of the eyelids
bulbar conjunctiva
covering of the anterior surface of the sclera
nasal or temporal angle where eyelids meet (by tear duct)
round, red structure in the inner canthus; contains sebaceous glands
opacity in the lens of the eye that gives the pupil a really "gray appereance"
chronic inflammation of the meibonian gland in the upper or lower eyelid
swelling of the palpebral conjunctiva
provides "nutrition" to the retina and helps absorbe excess light
inflammation of the lacrimal Gland
inflammation of the lacrimal Duct
Internal structures of the eye:
Outer layer
Middle layer
Inner layer
The outer layer contains:
the sclera and cornea
The middle layer contains:
Choroid, lens, iris,pupil
The inner layer contains:
Retina, optic disc, macula, fovea centralis, cones, rods
Visual pathway:
Sensory neurons in the retina
Optic disc
Optic nerve
Optic chiasm
Common findings with middle age patients:
Presbyopia, Retinopathy
Common findings with elderly patients:
Cataract, Glaucoma, Macular degeneration, Entropion or Ectropion, Dry eyes
Common chief complaints
Changes in visual acuity, drainage, itching, dryness
Characteristics of Chief complaints:
associated manifestations
aggravating factors
alleviating factors
General approach to eyes
Lighting, environment,patient in sitting position, always use systematic approach and compare right and left eyes
Visual Acuity assessment
CN II, use of a Snellen Chart, and an occluder to cover pt's eye
Visual Acuity tests
Distance Vision
Near Vision
Color Vision
The Confrontation technique is used to:
test the visual fields of each eye (CN II), divided into quadrants
Types of defects found when testing visual fields
Circumferential blindness
Unilateral blindness
Abnormal findings in the eyelids
Entropion or Ectropion
Abnormal findings in the Lacrimal apparatus:
Dacryodenitis, Dacryocystitis
Acute inflammation of the Lacrimal gland can occur when:
there is trauma, measles, mumps, or mononucleosis
Hirschberg test is...
Corneal light reflex test
Abnormal findings from Hirschberg test include:
strabismus (1 eye always deviated)
Esotropia (inward turning of eye)
Exotropia (outward turning of eye)
Cover/Uncover test abnormal findings include:
Phoria (latent misalignment of an eye)
Esophoria (nasal or inward,drift)
Exophoria (temporal or outward drift)
Abnormal findings with Cardinal fields of gaze (Extraocular muscle movements)
involve CN III, IV, VI!
Lack of symmetric movement in a particular direction;
Failure of an eye to move outward (CN VI);
Inability of an eye to move downward (CN IV);
Other defects in movement (CN III)
Tests used to assess Extraocular Muscle Function
Hirschberg test, Cover/uncover test , Cardinal fields of gaze
What does the confrontation test assess? Which CN is tested?
Visual field of each eye, and CN II is tested
Abnormal findings of the Conjunctiva:
Bacterial conjunctivitis, Viral conjunctivitis (herpes simplex or adenovirus), Allergic conjunctivitis, Pinguecula (nodule=exposure to UV light)
Abnormal findings of the Sclera:
Jaundice or scleral icterus, Blue sclera (osteogenesis)
Abnormal findings of the cornea:
Corneal ulceration=bacterial invasion; treelike configuration(herpes simplex); Arcus senilis; Glaucoma
Assessment technique of the iris:
with a penlight, inspect the iris for color, nodules, and vascularity
Abnormal findings of the Iris:
Iris nevus, hyphema (blood), Absent wedge portion of the iris
Pupils' abnormal findings:
anisocoria, ptosis, Horner's syndrome, Adie's pupil, dilated or fixed pupils (trauma), amaurotic pupil, small fixed, Argyl Robertson pupils (syphilis),
Lens' abnormal findings:
Senile cataract, unilateral cataract
The fundosocopic assessment is for:
assessing Posterior Segment Structures
What abnormal findings might be noted on a pt with Diabetes Mellitus?
Asymmetrical corneal light reflexes, vision getting weaker, glaucoma
Identify abnormal findings in a pt with HTN.
Hypertensive retinopathy, occlusion of central retinal vein, papilledema, infective endocarditis, astigmatism
S&S of glaucoma are:
glaucomatous cupping, pale optic disc, blindness
Variations found in elderly patients:
Changes in visual acuity
Macular Degeneration
Some normal vision findings include:
Visual acuity 20/20
Near vision acuity @ 14 inches
Able to id all 6 colors
Visual fields intact
Pupil size between 2-6mm
Red reflex present
The are of "central" vision in the macula is called the__________
Mydriasis means
dilated pupils
loss of accomodation for near vision (middle age & elderly pts)
involuntary oscillation of the eye; can be "normal" in lateral gaze
the medical term for "sty" is
medical term for "nearsightedness"
What is the common definition of "legal" blindness?
vision that when corrected is 20/200
Abnormal findings of the retina:
Cotton wool spots= microscopic infarcts of the nerve fiber layer from diabetes or HTN
"Roth spots" are
superficial retinal hemorrhages found with severe HTN