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57 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
4 extrinsic tongue muscles
Palatoglossus - CN X

Genioglossus = XII
Hyoglossus - XII
Syloglossus - CN XII
Muscles innervated by Hypoglossal nerve:
-All intrinsic tongue mm
-All extrinsic except palatoglossus
Palatoglossus nerve
Muscle innervated by CN IX:
"STYLOID" muscles and nerves:
-Stylohyoid - CN VII
-Stylopharyngeus - CN IX (pharn)
-Styloglossus - CN XII (glossal)
Tongue - Ant 2/3
Taste = VII (chorda tympani)

Sensory = V3

Motor = XII
Tongue - Post 1/3
Taste = IX

Sensory = IX & X (superior laryngeal)

Motor = XII and X (palatoglossus)
Route of Ophthalmic branch - Lacrimal:
Between lateral rectus muscle and orbit roof
Route of Ophthalmic branch - Frontal branch - Supratochlear:
Deep to periorbita
Superficial to levator palpebrae
Route of Ophthalmic branch - Frontal branch - Supraorbital:
Through supraorbital notch
Route of Ophthalmic branch - Nasociliary:
-Within muscular cone and tendinous ring of rectus muscles
-Crosses optic n. w/ Opthalmic artery
Dura mater - 2 layers:
1. endosteal
2. meningeal
Dura mater - 4 folds:
-Falx cerebri
-Falx cerebelli
-Tentorium cerebelli
-Tentorium sellae (diaphragma)
What pierces Diaphragma sellae?
Pituitary stalk
Nerves supplying dura mater:
Cervical nn via XII
Arterial supply to Dura mater:
Venous draingage:
Middle meningeal artery
Middle meningeal vein
7 Venous sinouses:
1. Superior sagittal
2. Inferior sagittal
3. Straight sinus
4. Transverse sinus
5. Sigmoid sinus
6. Cavernous sinus
7. Petrosals - sup/inf
Superior sagittal drains into
Inferior sagittal joins
Great Cerebral Vein (of Galen)
Great cerebral vein forms
Straight sinus
Straight sinus - attachment of:
-Falx cerebri
-Tentorium cerebelli
Sigmoid sinuses drain into
What passes through the cavernous sinuses?
-CNs 3, 4, V1, V2, 6
-Internal carotid artery
Cavernous sinuses drain into:
Sup/Inf Petrosal sinuses
Superior Petrosal sinus drains into:
Sigmoid sinus
Inferior Petrosal sinus drains into:
Vascular supply to Arachnoid mater:
nothing - it's avascular
What is the purpose of arachnoid granulations?
Project into venous sinuses and reabsorb CSF
Pia mater
Faithfully follows contour of the brain
4 types of intracranial hemorrhages:
1. Epidural
2. Subdural
3. Subarachnoid
4. Cerebral
Vessels associated with Epidural hemorrhage:
Meningeal aa or vein
Vessels associated with Subdural hemorrhage:
-Between what 2 layers?
Superior cerebral
-Between Dura/arachnoid
Vessels associated with Subarachnoid hemorrhage:
-Between what 2 layers?
Cerebral arterial circle (of
-Between subArachnoid/Pia
Vessels associated with Cerebral hemorrhage:
Site of CSF secretion:
Choroid plexus
First 4 steps - CSF circulation:
-Lateral Ventricles (R/L)
-3rd ventricle via intraventricular foramina
-Cerebral aqueduct (at bottom of 3rd ventricle
-4th Ventricle
How CSF exits the 4th ventricle:
Via 3 foramina:
-Foramen of Matradi - median
-Lateral Foramina of Lushka (2)
Where does CSF flow into from exiting the 4th ventricle?
Subarachnoid space and cisterns
How does CSF exit the subarachnoid space?
Via arachnoid granulations - they project up into venous sinuses and allow CSF reabsptn.
What is Hydrocephalus?
Increased CSF volume which causes ventricular dilation.
What is a common traumatic cause of Hydrocephaly?
Fracture in the occipital region
3 things cause Hydrocephaly (increased CSF)
1. Increased production
2. Blocked circulation
3. Decreased reabsorption
2 Types of Hydrocephaly:
What is noncommunicating hydrocephaly?
Blocked circulation due to obstructed ventrical system.
Where is usual site of obstruction in noncommunicating hydrocephaly?
Cerebral aqueduct (btwn 3rd/4th ventricles)
What causes Communicating Hydrocephaly?
CSF can't get from subarachnoid space into venous sinuses.
2 main arteries supply Circle of Willis:
1. ICA
2. Vertebral aa.
Vertebral aa's branch from ___ and enter the skull via:
Subclavian a. via Foramen Magnum and Transverse foramina (cervical vertebrae)
How does ICA enter the skull?
Via carotid canal (petrous temporal bone) through upper part of Foramen Lacerum.
Where does ICA go after entering the skull via Foramen lacerum?
Cavernous sinus -> penetrates dura -> subarachnoid space -> branches
What are the most important branches of ICA in the brain?
-Ophthalmic a.
-Anterior cerebral aa.
-Middle cerebral aa.
-Hypothalamic/pituitary branches
What cranial nerve will be affected by an aneurism in AICA?
Abducent CN VI
What typically causes CVA?
(CVA=cerebrovasc accidents)
From which can brain recover?
Ischemia - infarct results in tissue death.
What is the difference between ischemia and infarct?
Ischemia = decr. blood flow

Infarct = ceased blood flow
What is the back border of the anterior cranial fossa?
LESSER sphenoid wing - not ant clinoid processes!
What is crista galli's function?
Attachment of Falx Cerebri