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43 Cards in this Set

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Density
Overall blackness on a radiograph
Mass Density
Quantity of matter per unit volume
Density
Expressed in Kg/m3
Or
Gm/cm3
Mass Density --Per Unit Volume
•Lung 320 Kg/m3
•Fat 910 Kg/m3
•Muscle 1000 Kg/m3
•Bone 1850 Kg/m3
Mass Density --Per Unit Volume
•Air 1.3 Kg/m3
•Barium 3500 Kg/m3
•Iodine 4930 Kg/m3
Optical Density
•Presented on a radiograph from black to clear
•Black numerically equivalent to 3.0
•Clear numerically equivalent to 0.2
Long Scale Contrast
Lighter film
Short Scale Contrast
Darker film
Optical Density
Controlled by mAs direct increase
Controlled by SID
30 Per Cent Rule
mAs must be increased by 30% to produce a perceptive increase in optical density
Density & kVp
kVp changes affect penetration, but also creates scatter

kVpchanges will also affect
PATIENT DOSE & CONSRAST
15 Per Cent Rule
To INCREASE Optical Density by kVp an increase of 15% is equal to DOUBLING the mAs.
CONTRAST
The difference in optical densities between adjacent anatomical structures or a variation in optical densities on a radiograph.
High Contrast
blacks/whites
Short Scale Contrast
blacks/whites
Low Contrast
All shades
Long Scale Contrast
All shades
If the x-ray tube is moved closer to the film, the radiation intensity at the film...
Increases
What formula tells the radiographer what new mAs to use when the SID changes to maintain film density?
Maintenance Density Formula
mAs1/mAs2 = D1(squared) / D2 (squared)
As the xray tube is moved farther away from the film, the collimator light will ..
cover a larger area of the film
The distance between the xray tube and the film is called the ...
SID Source-image distance
If the SID doubles, the radiation intensity at the film...
is reduced by half
What is the controlling factor of radiographic contrast?
kVp
Describe the type of image considered high contrast
black, white, few shades of gray
Which contrast scale is also considered high contrast?
Short Scale
Which one of these has the most tissue density?
Air, Muscle, Fat or Bone
Bone
Which one of these body components whould display the most radiographic density?
Air, Muscle, Fat or Bone
Air
The degree of difference between adjacent densities on a radiograph defines...
contrast
The radiographic contrast caused by differences in the patient's body is ...
subject contrast
Which would absorb more xray photons?
A body component with many electrons or with few electrons
Many electrons = High Atomic Number
The ability of a body component to absorb x-rays differently depending on its average atomic number and compactness is called...
differential absorption
The reduction in intensity of radiation as it passes through matter is called....
Attenuation
If two body components were exactly the same except for their thickness, which compoent would absorb the most radiation? Thicker or thinner body component
Thicker
If two body components received the same amount of radiation, which would display the most radiographic intensity? Thicker or thinner body component
Thinner
Which one of these can a radiographer usually see on a plain radiograph of the abdomen? the pancreas, liver, spleen or stomach
Liver
The addition of which one of these contrast media to the body will decrease the tissue density of the body part? Air, Iodine, or Barium
Air
Which one the following contrast media has the highes atomic number? Air, Iodine or Barium
Iodine
Which exposure factor give kinetic energy to electrons as they travel from the filament to the anode of the x-ray tube? mA, time, kVp or mAs
kVp
An electron that has a lot of kinetic energy as it travels from the filament to the anode of the xray tube will probably produce an xray photon with.. High or low energy
High Energy
Which beam would penetrate through body tissues easily? A beam produced with high kVp or low kVp
High kVp
Which kVp produces more scatter radiation? High kVp or low kVp
High kVp
Which type of image would be produced on a radiograph produced with low kVp? High contrast or low contrast
High Contrast
Another term for the presence of scattered radiation on the film is...
Fog