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22 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Richer Deeper representations and schemas
novices match on surface features
experts rely on deeper representations
experts spend more time on
setting up the problem... top down
novices spend more time on
trying to solve the problem... bottom up
novices
bottom up...start with info available and get more info and order more tests.. try means-end analysis
experts
top down...start with info available, use schemas and previous knowledge to narrow down possibilities.. only order a few tests... less irrelevant information and lower working memory load.. use deliberate problem solving strategies only if other methods fail
experts
see patterns, immediately retrieve knowledge about patterns
novices
must figure out consequences, big working memory load
automatic expert processes
schematization and automatization
schematization
develop rich, highly organized schemas.. helps to organize knowledge, create correct representation of problem
automatization
consolidate sequences of steps into unified routines that require little or no conscious control
what to do to become an expert...
chunking: digit span, power law, cognitive stage, associative stage, autonomous stage
power law
initial rapid improvement, then smaller improvements until almost fully automatic
cognitive stage
conscious, discrete steps and effortful... still figureing out problem
learn basics through instruction/observation, many mistakes or do not solve
associative stage
practice! skills becomes more smooth and accurate, skill learning skill, slow, making some mistakes
Autonomous stage
can perform skills with out attention, very quickly to solve, no mistakes
no learning in the brain occurs...
medial anterior and middle frontal lobes
weak learning in the brain occurs...
parietal lobes and precuneous
strong learning in the brain occurs...
posterior cingulate
creativity
producing something original and worthwhile
two types of creativity
divergent insight and convergent insight
divergent insight
move away from a particular form or structure to explore other uses and ideas, ex.. name all the uses for a brick, break out of functional fixedness
convergent insight
findunifying pattern or structure within what seems to be a scattered set of information, ex... "eureka!"what associates these words: cottage, blue, mouse