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60 Cards in this Set
 Front
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Naturalistic Observation

a scientific approach that focuses on observation and description; it is generally used with naturally occurring and ongoing phenomena, with little experimenter intervention


correlational approach

design that is used to establish the relationship berween two variables without the ability to infer causal relationships


experimental method

a method based on strict control in experimentation for making valid inferences concerning the relationships between one variable and another


modeling

a procedure using either a conceptual or a mathematical model to generate data


retrospective, posthoc methods

a procedure by which a researcher examines data available prior to the beginning of the study to answer the research question (ex. medical recordes from teh past 20 years)


qualitative methods

methods that emphasize verbal descriptions and narratives rather than traditional statistical methods.


quantitative methods

methods that emphasize measures using numbers and traditional statistical techniques


hypothesis

a statement or expectation developed in relation to an explicit or implicit theory concerning potential outcomes of an experiment


experimental group

the group that receives the independent variable in an experiment


control group

the group that receives a zero level of the independent variable and that is used to assess the effects of the independent variable or treatment


operational definiton

a definition that presents a construct in terms of observable operations that can be measured and utilized in research
it redefines the concept in terms of clearly observable operations that anyone can see and repeat 

independent variable

the variable that the experimenter manipulates, levels established by experimenter and independent of anything that happens during the experiment


dependent variable

the variable that is measured by the experimenter


treatment effect

the effect produced by the treatment or independent variable on the dependent variable,
the difference in the magnitude of the dependent variable for the control and experimental groups 

confounding variables

a variable that systematically varies with the independent variable that could provide an alternative explanation for the influence of the independent variable on the dependent variable


internal validity

refers to one's ability to make valid inferences conderning the relationship between a dependent and an independent variable in a experimental situation


external validity

generalizability of an experimental outcome to other groups, settings , treatment variables, and measurement variables


deduction

reasoning from the general to the particular, as in the case of creating an expected hypothesis for a particular experiment from a general theoretical statement. Opposite of induction.


induction

process of reasoning from a part to a whole, as might be performed when data from a particular study are used to develop a general theory


antecedent

the first or two propositions in a logical argument of the form,
If antecedent is true, then consequent follows. 

consequent

the second of two propositions in a logical argument of the form
It antecedent is true, then consequent follows. 

affirming the consequent

form of reverse confirmatory reasoning in which one case is used to draw the illogical conclusion relating to all similar cases.
If p, then q. p. therefore q. 

denying the antecedent

form of reasoning in which a false premise is illogically concluded to result in a false consequent
If p, then q. Not p. Therfore, not q. 

modus ponens (confirmatory reasoning)

reasoning that a true premise leads to a true consequent
If p,then q. p therfore, q. 

modus tollens (disconfirmatory reasoning)

reasoning that a false consequent leads to a false premise
If p, then q. not q therefore not p. 

paradigm

worldview and set of assumptions that direct what a scientst examines, what measurements are made, and how these are to be understood


Karl Popper

Falsificationism  name given to poppers description of how science is performed.
emphasizes science as a process for the eliminatio of false theories 

Thomas Kuhn

science goes through series of revolutions, paradigms until another paradigm shift (revolution) takes place
stable period between shifts is normal science 

construct validity

asks whether the procedure we are using is actually an adequate definition of the construct we are measuring


measurement

the process of determining a dimensional or quantitative representation of a construct


validity

accuracy of our ideas and our research; degree to which these are true and capable of support


reliability

requirement that a measure be consistent and reproducible


testretest reliablity

a measure of consistency(usually the correlation coefficient) in which a measurement is conducted at two separate times and their similarity determined


scales of measurement

refers to the type of information a number conveys


frequency distribution

set of scores organized according to frequency of occurence


xaxis

the horizontal axis of a graph also referred to as the abscissa. independent variable typically plotted here


yaxis

vertical axis of a graph also referred to as the ordinate. dependent variable plotted here


bimodal distribution

refers to the situation in which the scores of a distribution form two separate nodes or peaks, one at each end of the distribution


mean

average of a set of scores


median

middle score in a destribution


mode

score that occurs with the greatest frequency


variability

the manner in which measurements vary within an experiemental condition.
The statistical measurement of variability are those of standard deviation and variance 

standard deviation

measure of variability calculated by taking the square root of the variance


sum of squares

number used in the determination of the variance; calculated by summing the squared values for the deviation of each data point from the mean of that data set


inferential statistics

used to infer from a given sample of scores parameters related to the set of all possible scores from which that sample was drawn


null hypothesis

hypothesis that the differences between two or more population parameters are zero.
used nontechnically to refer to the condition that no differences exist between groups in an experiment 

confound

factor that systmeatically biases the research but was not purposely introduced by the experimenter


chance variation

occurrence of events without any known antecedent as seen from the standpoint of the experiment


systematic variation

variation due to systematic factors


Fratio

statistic for comparing the variance attributed to chance with that attributed to treatment effects, calculated in an analysis of variance


type 1 error

error of rejecting the null hypothesis when it is true


alpha level

the probability of making a type 1 error


type 2 error

error of accepting the null hypothesis when it is false


beta level

the probability of making a type 2 error


power

the inverse (1B) of the probability of making a type 2 error; related to the number of individual results required to show a significant difference given a particular effect size


effect size

the statistical magnitude of change that the independent variable has on the dependent variable


control

techniques used to reduce the effects of extraneous variables on results and to ensure greater certainty that the changes in the dependent variable result from the independent variable


random number table

table of numbers created so that their occurrence cannot be predicted from a mathematical formula


random sampling

the selection of participants in an unbiased manner so that each potential participant has an equal possibility of being selected for the experiment


random assignment

occurs when a partcipants chances of being assigned to each group in an experiment are equal
