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166 Cards in this Set

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Physical Fitness
The ability to meet life's demands and still have enough energy to respond to unplanned events.
Muscular Strength
anaerobic; The amount of force a muscle can exert for one repetition.
Muscular Endurance
A muscle's ability to continue submaximal contractions against resistance.
Flexibility
The ability to move through a full range of motion
Lean body mass
The nonfatty component of the body.
Body composition
The relationship between fat weight and lean body mass
Health
the total of your physical, social, emotional, mental, and spiritual status.
Self esteem
The regard you hold for yourself, the value you place on yourself.
Blood-lipid analysis
Examination and study of the fats presented in the blood.
Graded Exercise Test or Stress Test
Test designed to monitor the electrical activity of the heart; subjects perform it by walking on a treadmill that is slowly elevated to increase the workload.
Health related fitness
An adequate or above adequate level of achievement based on test scores in components such as cardiorespiratory endurance, muscular strength and endurance, flexibility, and body composition that has been associated with the prevention of certain diseases and disorders, high energy, and a high level of wellness.
Oxygen transport system
The ability of the body to take in and use oxygen at the tissue level during physical activity.
One repetition maximum
Free weights are commonly used to determine your 1RM for a particular muscle group. This is the maximum amount of weight you can lift one time.
Slow-twitch fibers
Oxidative; The type of muscle fibers used in endurance sports; equipped metabolically to meet the demands of aerobic activities of long duration.
Fast-twitch fibers
Glycolytic; The type of muscle fibers used in anaerobic, power sports; equipped metabolically to meet the demands of short-duration, high intensity activities.
Intermediate fibers
oxidative-glycolytic; posses a combination of slow and fast twitch fibers
hypertrophy
An increase in the size of the muscle
Body mass index
BMI; A method of determining overweight and obesity by dividing body weight in pounds and height in inches squared; this method is considered superior to hight-weight tables.
Preconditioning period
A period of 2-6 weeks taken to prepare the body gradually for maximum effort testing or engagement in a vigorous activity of sport
Progressive resistance exercise
PRE; The theory of gradually increasing the amount of resistance to be overcome or the number of repetitions in each workout
Stroke volume
the amount of blood ejected per beat
cardiac output
the volume of blood pumped by the heart per minute
osteoperosis
an abnormal decalcification of bones causing loss of bone density
Afterburn
the period following exercise when resting metabolism remains elevated
Neuromuscular specificity
Training a specific muscle group.
Metabolic specificity
Training a specific energy system (citric acid cycle or glycolysis cycle)
Warm up
The preparation of the body for vigorous activity through stretching, calisthenics, running, and specific sport movements designed to raise temperature.
Cool down
The use of 3-10 minutes of very light exercise movements at the end of a vigorous workout designed to coll the body slowly to nearly normal core temperature.
norepinephrine
an end product of some of the secretions of the adrenal gland; influences nervous system activity, constricts blood vessels, and increases blood pressure.
Cross training
The practice of alternating exercise choices throughout the week to avoid overuse injuries from repetitive movements.
aerobic
Activity performed in the presence of oxygen, using fat as the major source of fuel.
anaerobic
High-intensity activity, such as sprinting, performed in the absence of oxygen, using glucose as the major source of fuel.
cardiorespiratory fitness
aerobic; the ability of the heart, blood vessels, and lungs to deliver oxygen to the exercising muscles in amounts sufficient to meet the demands of the work load.
Maximal oxygen consumption
VO2 Max; the optimal capacity of the heart to pump blood, of the lungs to fill with larger volumes of air, and of the muscle cells to use oxygen and reove wast products produced during the process of aerobic metabolism.
Aerobic metabolism
The process of breaking down energy nutrients such as carbohydrates and fats in the presence of oxygen to yield energy in the form of ATP.
Cardiorespiratory system
joint functioning of the respiratory system (the lungs and airway passages) and the circulatory system (the heart and blood vessels).
stroke volume
the amount of blood pumped per beat of the heart, usually expressed in units of milliliters per beat.
adenosine triphosphate
ATP; the basic substrate used by the muscle to provide energy for muscle contraction.
creatine phosphate
CP; a substrate present in muscle tissue that is broken down into its component parts (creatine and phosphate) to provide phosphates for the production of ATP.
fibrosis
a condition in which muscle fibers degenerate with age and are replaced by fibrous connective tissue.
elasticity
the ability of connective tissue to return to its original form (as opposed to plasticity)
muscle extensibility
The ability of muscle tissue to stretch.
vertebrae
the 33 bones of the spinal column, some of which are normally fused together (sacral and coccygeal vertebrae)
sciatica
pain along the course of the great sciatic nerve (hip, leg, thigh, foot)
Dynamic stretching
involves the specific movements of an activity or sport through the range of motion, progressing from low to medium to high speed.
static stretching
flexibility exercises in which a position is held steady for a designated time (at least 30 seconds) at the extreme range of motion.
Proprioceptive neuromscular facilitation stretching
PNF; A two-person stretching technique involving the application of steady pressure by a partner a the extreme range of motion for a particular exercise and steady resistance to the pressure.
ballistic stretching
flexibility exercises employing bouncing and jerking movements at the extreme range of motion or point of discomfort.
passive stretching
use of partner or special equipment to move body parts carefully and safely through range of motion
Basal metabolism
the minimum energy the body needs to support ongoing cellular activity when the body is at rest; work that goes on continuously without your awareness.
tendon
the fibrous band that attaches some muscles to the bones so that they move when the muscles contract
muscle fibers
bundles of tissue comprised of cells
myofibrils
the protein filaments that interact and slide by one another during a muscle contraction
set
a group of repetitions for a particular exercise
repetitions
the number of times a specific exercise is completed
isokenetic
same speed; the type of dynamic (concentric) muscular contraction that occurs at a constant velocity through the range of motion
isometric
same distance; force applied to an immovable object that does not result in muscle shortening with a static application of force without movement
isotonic
same resistance; shortening of the muscle in the positive phase and lengthening during the negative phase of action with steady weight throughout range of motion
calisthenics
use of body as means of resistance
concentric exercise
positive phase of muscle contraction; the phase of exercise when the muscle shortens rather than lengthens during muscular tension; the upward phase, or the phase of an exercise when weight is being lifted
eccentric exercise
negative phase of muscle contraction; the phase of exercise when a muscle lengthens rather than shortens during muscular tension; the downward phase, or the phase of an exercise when the weight is being lowered
rest interval
the amount of time taken between sets which usually takes about 2 minutes for full recovery and 3-5 seconds for 50% recovery
moderate activity
a brisk walk or the like where your heart rate is increased and you are still able to talk
dose response
number of minutes of activity to get a warranted response
national standards
CDC/ACSM recommendations are the national standard
health development
lifelong adaptive process that builds and maintains optimal functional capacity and disease resistance
components of health related physical fitness
cardiorespiratory fitness, muscular strenght, muscular endurance, flexibility, and body composition; you must balance all these equally and add all of these to the base of your fitness program
Par-Q
This is a simple physical activity readiness questionnaire that should be given to almost anyone before beginning a fitness program; it determines whether or not you are at high risk prior to physical fitness.
Determining need for medical evaluation in a physical assessment
People over the age of 46, people with symptoms of heart disease or other medical ailments, and people who have previously been sedentary.
field tests
allows you or the client to do evaluations of current level of fitness
3 ACSM catagories of individuals who may undergo fitness testing
apparently healthy--those who appear to be in good health and have no major coronary risk factors; individuals at higher risk--those who have symptoms suggestive of heart disease, pulmonary or metabolic disease, or at least one major coronary risk factor; individuals with disease--those with known cardiac, pulmonary, or metabolic diseases
Gold standard for cardiorespiratory fitness
VO2 Max; this is not a perfect test because people often do not go to point of complete exhaustion
Public Health
Prevention focus where the medical model is treatment through the minimization of preventable disease and disability; it looks at the population perspective and it is both a science and an art
Primary Prevention
pre-diagnosis to lower risk by trying to prevent behaviors through programs, etc.
Secondary prevention
pre-diagnosis but with some indicators or risk factors leading to disease or risky behavior by trying to prevent, stop, or alter behavior through programs, etc.
Tertiary prevention
established disease, etc. by trying to prevent exacerbation of disease through programs, etc.
Public health problem
affects the health, function, and well being of a large number of people; threatens the well-being of the community or the social fabric of the society; results in long-term chronic disability or premature death for a significant proportion of the population; will get worse, spread, affect larger numbers of persons, if it is not addressed as a community responsibility
surveillance
involves monitoring aspects of disease occurrence or behaviors that are relevant for effective control; 3 primary systems of surveillance include the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), and the National Health and Nutrition Survey (NHANES I-III)
Importance of surveillance
estimate numbers at risk; understand activity levels of subgroups; determine trends; document baseline levels to evaluate control and intervention strategies; identify research needs; facilitate planning
subgroup norms
men engage in more leisure-time activity than women in all races; Caucasians engage in more leisure time activity than other races
FITT
Frequency--how often; Intensity--how hard; Type--on/doing what; Time--how long; these are the fitness parameters
subjective techniques used to measure physical fitness
This is not very accurate because it asks the participant to recall activity; self-report is the most common; usually people over-report exercise
Physical activity goals
Health outcomes, fitness outcomes, and performance outcomes; goals vary based upon FITT
Intensity for cardiorespiratory fitness
determined by heart rate max or heart rate reserve and is used in combination with duration and frequency to prescribe the appropriate amount of work based on overall goal
Cardiorespiratory fitness recommendations for CDC/ACSM
general population recommendations; requires 30 minutes or more of moderate-intensity physical activity on most, preferably all days of the week
Cardiorespiratory fitness recommendation for ACSM
recommendations for those trying to improve physical fitness; requires 20-60 minutes of moderate-to high intensity endurance exercise at 60-90% maximum heart rate or 50-85% maximal aerobic power.
Cardiorespiratory fitness recommendations for Surgeon General's Report
recommendations for those trying to lose or maintain weight; 150 kcal/day or 1,000 kcal/week in moderate-to-high intensity activities
Heart rate reserve method or maximal aerobic power method
220-age=maximal heart rate (MHR)
MHR-Resting Heart Rate=HRR
RHR+(0.50 X HRR)=lower limit
RHR+ (0.85 X HRR)=upper limit
Maximum heart rate method
220-age=Maximum heart rate (MHR)
MHR X (0.60)=lower range
MHR X (0.90)=higher range
Target heart rate is between higher and lower range
Intensity guidelines for health benefits from physical activity
Heart rate max range of 50-60%
Intensity guidelines for fitness benefits from physical activity
Heart rate max of 60-90%
Intensity guidelines for performance benefits from physical activity
Heart rate max above 80%
Duration guidelines for health benefits from physical activity
30 minutes of moderate intensity activity accumulated throughout the day
objective techniques used to measure physical fitness
more accurate than subjective but usually subjective and objective are both used; there is no one perfect way of testing objectively
criterion techniques used to measure physical fitness
most accurate; someone walks with with the client or measures the client
Type (mode) for cardiorespiratory fitness
involves repetative movment, uses large muscle groups, can be maintained for prolonged period of time
Intensity
how hard the activity "pushes" or works the body
Duration guidelines for fitness benefits from physical activity
20-60 minutes per session
Duration guidelines for performance benefits from physical activity
15-45 minutes per session; variable durations based on intensity with several very long workouts of several hours intermittantly
Frequency guidelines for health benefits from physical activity
most days of the week
Frequency guidelines for fitness benefits from physical activity
3-5 days per week
Frequency guidelines for perfomrance benefits from physical activity
5-6 days per week; rest at least one day
power
the ability to exert force explosively
speed
ability to make rapid movements
agility
the ability to change directions quickly
coordination
ability to produce unified movements
balance
ability to maintain stability
who should prescribe programs for others?
exercise science professionals or certified professions from ACSM, NSCA, NASM, ACE, or others
BMI calculation
weight in kg/height in meters squared
1kg=2.2 lbs and 1m=39.25 inches
training
extended, regular activity program (not necessarily exercise)
overload principle
use baseline and increase it in some way to see change; you must change or overload one or all FITT
principle of progression
gradually increase overload; if going from sedentary state to meeting requirements you must progress over 4-6 weeks
10% rule
you dont want to increase more than 10% in 4-6 week period and after do what ou need or think; general rule
periodization
with athletes you must cycle program; go from hard training to recovery and back again
specificity of exercise principle
use muscle groups or systems you want to see change in
reversibility principle
use it or lose it; consistency is critical because in 2 months you can see a 50% loss
General principles of exercise
overload principle, principle of training, principle of progression, specificity of exercise principle, and reversibility principle
exercise prescription basics
parQ or health assessment; fitness goals; mode of exercise; warm-up; primary conditioning period; cool-down; personalize
addictive exercise dependence
most important thing in life; disregard other things for exercise; uncontrollable cravings
habitual exercise dependence
work at it daily but do not disregard other things in life
defining exercise dependence
tolerance, withdrawal, intention, loss of control, time, conflict, continuance
Frequency guidelines for stretching
3-5 days a week
Duration guidelines for stretching
10-30 seconds per session, 15-30 seconds per stretch
Intensity guidelines for stretching
mild discomfort is the maximum
stretching technique to replace head roll
forward neck roll--do not roll in circles but just front to back or side to side
stretching technique to replace quadriceps stretch
opposite leg pull
stretching technique to replace hurdler's stretch
everted hurdler's stretch
stretching technique to replace deep knee bend
single-knee lunge
stretching technique to replace yoga plow
extended one-leg stretch
stretching technique to replace straight-leg sit up
bent-knee sit up
stretching technique to replace double leg raise
knee to chest stretch
stretching technique to replace prone arch
belly push up
stretching technique to replace back bend
no alternative exercise has been approved
cardio
involves the heart and blood vessels that transport oxygen, nutrients, and wastes among vital organs and tissues
respiratory
involves lungs, air passages, and breathing muscles that supplies oxygen and removes carbon dioxide
heart as two pumps in one
right side pumps blood to pulmonary circuit while the left side pumps blood to systemic circuit
metabolism
sum of energy expended in carrying on the normal body processes
metabolic rate
depends on the level of activity; total daily expediture of energy
resting metabolic rate
60-70% of total energy required
thermic effect of feeding
10% of total energy required
thermic effect of physical activity
15-30% of total energy required
3 energy systems
immediate energy system, non-oxidative (anaerobic) energy system, and oxidative (aerobic) energy system
immediate energy system
first 10-30 seconds of activity that uses up available stores of ATP
Non-oxidative anaerobic energy system
after immediate energy system; it lasts for 10 seconds to 2 minutes and it uses glucose and glycogen; it will produce lactic acid because it does not use oxygen
Oxidative aerobic energy system
occurs after first 2-3 minutes and it is the breakdown of glucose, glycogen, fats, and amino acids; these chemical reactions require oxygen
ratings of perceived exertion
train people to get specific RPEs; put a 0 after the number and get a heart rate; 60-70% range is around 12-15 RPEs
phases of individualized cardiorespiratory program
starter phase, slow progression phase, maintenance phase
starter phase for CR program
6 weeks+ for nonactive people; 2 weeks for semi active people
slow progression phase for CR program
gradual, specifize, start low, 12-20 weeks, think overload principle
maintenance phase for CR program
don't need necessary level of overload anymore, reversibility principle is more important but you can drop some frequency
training techniques
cross-training, long and slow distances, intervals, and fartlek
Fartlek
running distance but varying intensity
intervals
length, time, intensity flexes
muscle structure
single muscle cell creates fibers which create a muscle bundle (fascicle) surrounded by connective tissue which makes a whole muscle; a tendon attaches the muscle to the bone
balance your program by using opposing muscle groups
agonist (prime mover)is the muscle in a state of contraction and the antagonist which opposes the action of the other muscle
principles of strength and endurance training program
overload principle, specificity principle
specificity principle
development of muscular strength and endurance is specific to both muscle group exercised and the training intensity
Weight training program design
warm-up, stretch and use good form, spotters, 48 hour rest period
weight training program frequency recommendations
2-3 times a week
weight training program intensity recommendations
8-12 reps max
weight training program time recommendations
8-10 exercises, 1-3 sets, 8-12 reps
weight training program type recommendations for strength
2-3 sets of 10/8/6 or 8/6/4 as you increase weight while you decrease reps
weight training program type recommendations for endurance
1-3 sets of 30/20/10 reps
hyperplasia
muscle cells increase
gender differences in muscular strength and endurance
men are 50% stronger than women in upper body and 30% stronger than women in lower body, men have 20-30 times more testosterone than women
problems with anabolic steroids
cancer, CVD, acne, aggression, bone-late closure, baldness, increased breast size, atrophy, sterility, deepen voice, increase hair, menstrual cycle disrupted, and sterility