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82 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
_______ stimulation of the heart causes the heart rate to decrease.
parasympathetic
Resting cardiac output averages about ___L/min in healthy adults.
5
Under resting conditions, approximately ____% of cardiac output is distributed to the skeletal muscles.
15-20%
All deoxygenated blood returning to the heart rom the body tissues enters the right______
atrium
The _____ node is normally responsible for setting the pace of the heart's rhythmic beating
SA
The QRS complex of the electrocardiogram represents depolarization of the _______
ventricle
Define vagal tone or vascular tone
continuous outflow of sympathetic neural signals to the blood vessels resulting in a constant state of partial vascular constriction.
The plasma of blood (increases or decreases?) with endurance training.
increases
EDV-ESV is the same as________
stroke volume
The average hematocrit is ____
40-45%
Define cardiac output
The volume of blood pumped by the heart per minute
Define diastole
The relaxation phase of the heart
The _______ _____ supplies oxygen rich blood to the myocardium.
coronary artery
Trace bloodflow through the heart.
look it up and write it out
What are 6 major cardiovascular functions?
1. delivery of oxygen and other nutrients
2. removal of CO2 and other metabolic waste
3. transport of hormones
4. thermoregulation
5. maintenance of pH
6. immune function
Which ventricle is the largest one?
The left one
With exercise, the _____ ventricle increases in size.
left
What are 2 causes of left ventricle hypertrophy?
1. wall thickness changes
2. volume changes
Define Aortic Stenosis
aortic opening is smaller than normal
Which part of the brain deals with cardiac control?
medulla oblongata
What part of the brain is in charge of skeletal muscle control?
Precentral gyrus
Define aVO2 diff
Arterial difference of blood that flows through the muscle
Define Angina
the painful symptoms from artherosclerosis
What are 5 risk factors for artherosclerosis?
1. increase in LDL
2. decrease in HDL
3. Smoking
4. Hypertension
5. Lack of exercise
What is the widow-maker?
the left anterior descending artery
Define Heart Attack
Heart muscle death so so that it can't pump blood to the rest of the body.
Name 3 ways to fix artherosclerosis
1. angioplasti
2. bypass
3. heart transplants
Define Marfan syndrome
weakening in the major artery (like aorta) and the lack of connective tissue in artery.
Define Aneurysm
Large bubble in aorta that bursts
What are 5 signs of marfan syndrome?
1. tall and lean
2. long extremities
3. dilated aorta
4. risks for aneurysm
5. caused by genetic defect in fibrin
Name the five steps/structures of the cardiac conduction system (in order of their impulses)
1. Sinoatrial Node
2. Atrioventricular node
3. AV bundle
4. right and left bundle branches
5. purkinje fibers
What are 4 risk factors for having artherosclerosis?
1. high cholesterol
2. overweight
3. smoking
4. hypertension
What should your HDL levels be?
40-45
Define Angiography
Used to diagnose blocked arteries
Define Plaque
Build-up of cholesterol and WBCs
When you exercise, you increase the number of c_______
capillaries
Define arrhythmia
abnormal rhythm from excited cell
What is the max vagal tone (for parasympathetic stimulation) heart rate?
20-30 beats/ minute
What is the HR for the absence of vagal tone (for PNS)?
100 beats/minute
What is the HR for maximal sympathetic stimulation?
250 beats per minute
Define Contractility
the strength with which the heart contracts
the _____ _____ controls HR until you have enough work to dampen the _______ influence and eventually the _______ NS takes over.
1. vagus nerve
2. parasympathetic
3. sympathetic
What is the clinically normal HR?
60-100 beat/min
Define Bradycardia
any HR lower than 60 beats/min
Define Tachycardia
any resting HR higher than 100 beats/min.
Define ablation
a "zap" kills the cell that creates problems for the heart
Why can you survive in atrial fibrillation?
because there is less necessary pressure for passing through valves of the heart.
Define Atrial kick
20% of blood at rest that can be pushed into ventricles before they contract.
What is a normal Stroke volume?
70
Define Starlings Law
More blood that comes back, more blood that goes out
What is the average range for a max SV?
170-180
What is an average stroke volume (not while exercising)?
150 ml
What is the formula for Emax HR?
220-age
Define electrocardiogram
graphic representation of the depolarization and repolarization of the heart
What does the P wave represent?
Atrial depolarization
What does the QRS phase represent?
ventricular depolarization
What does the T wave represent?
ventricular repolarization
Why is the QRS wave bigger than the other 2?
because the ventricular muscle is bigger
Where does atrial repolarization occur in the ECG?
in the QRS phase
Define or describe what a Premature Ventricular Contraction is
Skipped or extra beats from impulses originating outside the SA node. Ventricles contract before atria do.
A vector shows both _________ and ___________
magnitude and direction
Define Ventricular Fibrillation
Contraction of the ventricular tissue is uncoordinated and can result in cardiac death.
What happens in isovolumetric relaxation?
Still blood in the heart but no movement of blood. The ventricles are completely closed chambers.
Define murmur
valve is not completely sealed so blood can go opposite way its supposed to go.
Define prolapse
flaps in the valve fold backwards
Define Isovolumetric
pressure isn't high enough for valve to open
What are the 5 curves in the Wiggers Diagram?
1. Atrial Pressure
2. Ventricular Pressure
3. Aortic Pressure
4. ventricular volume
5. EKG
In atrial pressure ___% of diastole is ____
80; passive
During the aortic pressure curve in the Wigger's diagram blood is being ___ into the _____
ejected; aorta
The _____ pressure does not change during exercise.
Diastolic
Blood pressure is determined by which 3 factors?
1. Pre-load
2. Volume
3. After-load
Return of blood to heart happens 3 ways...what are they?
1. valves in veins
2. muscle pumps
3. respiratory pump
Define Mean Arterial Pressure (MAP)
Average pressure of the heart
Pulse pressure equals...
systolic-diastolic
Give the equation for MAP
MAP=2/3DBP+ 1/3SBP
Explain how pre-load effects BP
determines how much force the heart contracts with
Define Q(cardiac output)
the total volume of blood pumped by the ventricle per minute
Define Ejection Fraction
Proportion of blood pumped out of left ventricle with each beat
What is the equation for ejection fraction?
Stroke volume/ End diastolic volume
Define metarterioles
go to capillaries or bypass capillaries
Blood pressure is controlled by the __________ nervous system.
autonomic
Baroreceptors are sensitive to stretch in the ______ _____ and the ______ _______
1. aortic arch
2. carotid arteries