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56 Cards in this Set

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Testosterone
-Released from testes
-enhances performance
-increases with exercise
estrogen/progesterone
-Released from ovaries
-
-increases with exercises(reasons unknown)
epinephrine
-Released by adrendal medulla
-causes glycogenolysis in liver
-causes lipolysis in adipose tissue
-increases with exercise
aldosterone
-from pituitary
-Causes reabsorption of water from distal tubules of kidneys
AND
-Controls sodium levels in urine and extracellular fluid volume
-inc. to 5x resting level with exercise
renin
-from kidneys
-causes release of angiotensin from kidneys
-inc. w/ exercise
angiotensin
-from kidneys
-causes release of aldosterone
-inc. w/ exercise
Side effects of hydrocortisol
-protein breakdown
-inc. lipid metabolism(leads to KETOSIS)
-tissue breakdown, including joint tissue
ADH(antidiuertic hormone)
-from post. pituitary
-limits urine output
-inc. w/ exercise
Glucagon function
-From alpha cells in pancreas
-stimulates glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis
*acts an insulin antagonist*
-inc. glucose
-inc. w/ exercise
growth hormone
-from ant. pituitary
-causes inc. protein synthesis in cells
leads to:
-muscle hypertrophy
-bone growth
-connective tissue growth
-general cell proliferation
-inc. during acute periods of physical activity
corticotropin
-is ACTH(adrenocorticotropic hormone)
-causes release of corticosteroids(which inc. liver metabolism and gluconeogenesis)
-stimulates protein breakdown
-inc. w/ exercise
thyrotropin
-from ant. pituitary
-inc. release of thyroxin which inc. cell metabolism throughout the body
-inc. w/ exercise
gonadotropic hormones
-FSH-follicle stimulating hormone
-LH-lutenizing hormone

in women-FSH stimuluates follicle growth
LH stimulates estrogen release
MEN-FSH(sperm development)
LH(tetosterone release)
Pancreas(2 types of cells)
1.) Acini cells
2.) Endocrine gland cells
a.Alpha-glucagon
b.beta-insulin
Fast twitch muscles(glycolytic)
-gets to peak contraction quickly
-high fatigability
-high force production
-Involves large motor units(lg. fibers)
-inc. glycolytic ability
-dec. myoglobin
slow twitch muscles(oxidative)
-similar to muscles in heart
-low contraction speed
-low fatigueability
-low force
-small fibers
-inc. oxidative capacity
Effects of bed rest on muscles
-May actually cause muscles to change type (ie slow to fast)
**not good when this happens**
Osteoporosis risk factors
"Porous bone"
Risks:
-women after 35, men after 50
-loss of estrogen(menopause)
-lifestyles: smoking, alcohol, caffiene, salt
-Lack of Ca+
Osteoporosis treatments
-Anabolic steroids in women
-Wt. training
-Regular exercise: stress helps bone regenerate
-Hormone therapy *lots of side effects*
Teratogenic vitamins
-Excess of Vitamin A taken early in pregnancy can cause birth defects
-rickets, bone swelling
Free radicals(def., production)
Def: highly reactive molecules that contain at least one unpaired electron in their outer orbit.
Production:
-Inc. during exercise
-occurs naturally
-reacts w/ other molecules to form potentially harmful molecules
Free radicals(harmful effects)
-Danger to electron dense cellular structures:
-DNA
-fatty acid rich cell membranes
-proteins
**can be neutralized by antioxidants--Vit A,C,E, beta carotene**
endomysium
-surrounds one muscle fiber(smallest)
perimysium
-surrounds bundles of muscle fibers(middle)
-aka: fasciculus
epimysium
-covers whole muscle(biggest)
-deep fascia
actin myosin
Actin-thin filament which contains:
1. troponin
2. tropomyosin(proteins essential for muscle contraction)
Myosin-Thick filament
-Cross bridges that interact with actin for contraction
**actin+myosin=myofibril**
troponin
-Controls actin and myosin
-changes shape of actin filament in the presence of Calcium
tropomyosin
-prevents binding of actin w/ myosin cross bridges
Muscle action potential
1)motoneuron in spinal cord send action potential to muscle
2) Ach released @ distal end of neuron
3)Action potential carried by sarcoplasmic reticulum/T-tubules
4)causes release of Ca @ lateral sacs
5)CA binds to troponin to inhibit tropomyosin
6)myosin cross bridges bind when ATP present
7)contract till Ca is gone
Pancreas
2 Cells:
1)acini cells
2)endocrine gland cells
a. alpha-glucagon
b. beta-insulin
Sarcomere
Def: area between adjacent z-lines
-Functional units as muscle fibers
h-bands
-Center of A-band in muscle
-region of lower optical density caused by absence of actin filaments in that area
z-lines
-Bisects I-band
-adheres to the sarcolemma to give stability to the entire structure
Type I diabetes
-Insulin dependent
-may start in childhood
-inc. urine output
-inc. glucose in urine
-ketosis due to inc. lipid metabolism
Type II diabetes
-Non-insulin dependent
-due to insulin resistance issues
-regular exercise may decrease risk of developing Type II diabetes
Beta cells of pancreas
-Produce insulin
-regulate glucose uptake into cells, esp. muscle tissue
Side effects of high glucose levels
-Arteriosclerosis
-Arteriole damage
-Nerve damage
-Inc. susceptibility to infection
-Stroke
-Inc. risk of coronary heart disease
Anabolic Steroids
-Drug that functions in a similar fashion to the male hormone testosterone
-May be used to enhance athletic performance
-Treatment of osteoporosis in women
Hormone target tissues
-Specific tissue that hormone normally controls
-these tissues have hormone receptors located on plasma membrane
-produces certain affects when hormones attach to receptor
Glucose for energy
-Also called dextrose
-Most important circulating blood sugar
-May be ingested or formed by gluconeogenesis
-Stored in mammals as glycogen
Gluconeogenesis
-Formation of glucose from proteins
Glycolysis
Series of chemical reactions that occur when a glucose molecule enters a cell for use as energy
Glycogenolysis
-Conversion fo glycogen to glucose during exercise
-will use up glycogen stores and then glucose is formed from proteins by gluconeogenesis
Chelesterol--Normal function
-Plasma membrane formation
-Synthesis of Vitamin D
-Precursor to steroid synthesis
-Formation of bile
RDA(recommended daily allowance)
.83 x your body mass(g)
-Excess is excreted and will not improve performance
Lipid max intake for good health
-No more than 25% of total calories
-Should be mostly in the unsaturated form
Polysaccharides(fiber, starch)
def: term used to define sugars bound together
-complex carbohydrates--plants store as starch
-Fiber
-Starch should be 50% of carb intake
Optimal sarcomere length
~2.5 microns
Calcium role in muscle contraction
-allows myosin cross bridges to bind and rotate
-keeps tropomyosin from exerting an inhibitory effect
Body water function
-Stabilizes body temp
-Transport of Oxygen, minerals, and nutrients
-Detox body thru urine and feces
-lubricates joints
-gives cells shape and structural strength
Effects of bed rest
-Can make a healthy individual insulin dependent within 3 days
Body composition
-Carbon: 18%
-Oxygen: 65%
-Other: Water, minerals, trace elements
How does the body lose water?
-Sweat--.35 L(max is 12 L)
-Evaporation thru breathing--
.35 L
-Urine--1-2 L
-Feces--.1 to .2 L
What hormones are released by the kidneys?
-Renin
-angiotensin
Who should take iron supplements?
-Pregnant women
-Growing children and teens
-Extreme athletes in some cases
-Vegan vegetarians
What are the negative results of long term prolonged high levels of glucose?
-Heart problems
-Stroke
-Nerve damage