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47 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
MOUTH
1st to ananyze, process, & lubricate food; digestion begins in here with breaking down of carbs. process called mastication (chewing) activates salivary glans
SALIVARY GLANDS
3 glands secrete salivary amylase to aid in digestion of carbs
PHARYNX
common passageway for food, liquid, air. Muscular contractions force food into esophagus
ESOPHAGUS
posterior to treachea, epithelial cells resist abrasion heat & cold; food now called BOLUS, is moved down this by PERISTALISIS (rythmic waves)
STOMACH
Located in LUQ stores, digests, breaks down food; Pepsin & HCl are secreted to break down protein; Thick soupy mixture of food & enzymes is called CHYME
CARDIOESOPHAGEAL SPHINCTER (AKA CARDIAC SPHINCTER)
Smooth muscle; wide end of stomach where it joins esophagus
PYLORIC SPHINCTER
narrow end of stomach where it joins small intestine-smooth muscle
RUGAE
folds in stomach that allow it to contract & expand
SMALL INTESTINE
about 20 ft. long & is made up of 3 sections; all 3 of these sections are made of simple columnar epithelium with goblet cells that will secrete fluids to help keep the tube lubed
DUODENUM
1st section; closest to stomach; digestion complete here
JEJUNUM
middle section where most of chemical & nutrient absorption occurs
ILEUM
last section that connects to the lg intestine by the ILEOCECAL VALVE; closest to lg intestine;
ILEOCECAL VALVE
hole in opening
LARGE INTESTINE
main functions include absorbing water & eliminating what is left as feces
CECUM
1st pt of lg intestine where compaction begins; opening
APPENDIX
fingerlike close to ileum; lympatic organ; lies just posterior to cecum RLQ
COLON
term collectively means lg intestine; made of ascending (going up), transverse (across), descending (going down), sigmoid (s-shaped)
HAUSTRA
bumps; little pouchlike pockets of lg intestine that can stretch
RECTUM
end of digestive tract; composed of stratified squamous epithelium
ANUS
composed of stratified squasmous epithelium; end of anorectal canal, consists of internal anal sphincters which are made of smooth muscle (involuntary) & external anal sphincters which are made of skeletal muscle (voluntary)
LIVER
brown; filters toxins & makes bile to emulsify fats; makes bile
GALLBLADDER
green; stores bile & changes its composition
PANCREAS
produces many digestive enzymes; located below the stomach and above intestiness; enzymes from this help in digestion of carbs, fats, & proteins in small intestine
CARBOHYDRATES
salivary amylase; salivary gland; pancreatic amylase-pancreas
PROTEINS
HCl & Pepsin=stomach Trypsin = pancreas
LIPIDS
Lipase=pancrease; BILE=synthesized in liver & stored in gallbladder
HYDROCHLORIC ACID (HCl)
secreted by parietal cells in stomach to help break down connective tissue of proteins; decrease pH of stomach to 2 (very acidic); helps kill bacteria
BICARBONATE ION
(HCO3-)
secreted by pancrease to buffer acidic chyme going into the duodenum from the stomach
pH OF STOMACH
2
TONGUE & TEETH
Accessary; muscle, connective, epithelial inside
STOMACH SECRETIONS
pepsin, HCl = break down protein
EPITHELIAL TISSUE & MICROVILLI
increase surface area for absorption
GOBLET CELLS
secrete mucus (white)
SALIVARY GLANDS
salivary amylase=digest carbohydrates;
STOMACH
pepsin = digest protein;
HCl = digest protein;
PANCREAS
pancreatic amylase=to digest carbohydrates; lipase= digest fat; trypsin= digest proteins;
HCO3-
pancreas; to buffer or neutralize the pH of food (chyme) coming out of stomach
SALIVARY GLANDS
salivary amylase; digest carbs
LIVER
makes bile
GALL BLADDER
stores bile emulsifies fats
PANCREAS
biocarbonate secretions neutralize stomach acid; pancreatic enzymes= pancreatic lipase= digest fat; pancreatic amylase= digest carbs; trypsin= digest protein
MOUTH
beginning pt for mechanical & chemical digestion
PHARYNX
common pathway for air & food
ESOPHAGUS
skeletal muscle at proximal end; smooth muscle at distal end
STOMACH
protein digestion; HCl= activates pepsin; Pepsin= digest proteins, chyme, pH2
SMALL INTESTINE
absorption of nutrients; duodenum, jujunum, ileum
LARGE INTESTINE
reclaiming of digestive secretions; cecum, ascending colon, transverse colon, descending colon, sigmoid colon, rectum